Value through Innovation28 July 2014

Scientific Publications

Boehringer Ingelheim offers an overview of scientific publications on the following pages. This overview represents all publications of the last three years (YTD) where employees of Boehringer Ingelheim worldwide were involved.

69 publications regarding Veterinary Medicine
  • Author:
    Steens R
    Title:
    Diagnostics in vaccination populations - A challenge [Diagnostik in Impfbeständen - Eine Herausforderung]
    Source:
    Tieraerztl Umsch 69 (6), 248-249 (2014)
  • Author:
    Weimer SL; Johnson AK; Fangman TJ; Karriker LA; Tyler HD; Stalder KJ
    Title:
    Comparison of nursery pig behavior assessed using human observation and digital-image evaluation methodologies
    Source:
    J Swine Health Prod 22 (3), 116-124 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Objectives: To design and implement a digital photograph system to document the pig response to a human observer in the home pen and then compare these results to a human observation in an approach-assessment paradigm. Materials and methods: An observer entered the nursery pen and crouched down with an outstretched arm for 15 seconds. A digital image was recorded, and the observer counted all pigs touching, oriented, and not oriented to the human. Each digital image was used to determine the snout and tail-base proximity to the index finger of the observer for pigs classified as Touch, Oriented, and Not Oriented when pens were divided into thirds and quarters. Postures and behaviors of pigs classified as Not Oriented were further delineated. Human observation and digital image were compared. Results: Most Not Oriented pigs in the digital image were standing, followed by-sitting, with 2.5% piling. Both snout and tail-base proximities were closer for Touch pigs than for the other categories {P < .001). Regardless of how pens were divided, more pigs were located in the section farthest from the observer. There were no differences (P > .05) between human observation and digital-image evaluation for pigs classified as Touch. More pigs were classified as Oriented and fewer as Not Oriented for digital-image evaluation (P <.001). Implication: Human observation is a faster and practical application, but digital-image evaluation allows for more information to be collected.
  • Author:
    Mondaca E; Batista L; Cano J-P; Díaz E; Philips R; Polson D
    Title:
    General guidelines for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome regional control and elimination projects
    Abstract:
    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be a costly disease affecting the swine industry worldwide. While veterinarians have developed a variety of strategies to control and eliminate the disease from pig herds, the risk of re-infection remains high even with the best current practices of management and biosecurity. The repeated failures of non-coordinated control and elimination efforts and the ease with which the disease is transmitted from one herd to another strongly suggest that a regional approach will be necessary. The regional approach for fighting PRRS proposes control in areas of high PRRS prevalence and high pig density, while elimination is potentially feasible in areas of low PRRS prevalence and low pig density. The purpose of this document is to outline a plan to implement PRRS regional control and elimination projects. The plan consists of five phases: evaluate the feasibility of the project, identify pig-related facilities in the area, classify pig sites according to their PRRS virus infection status, design PRRS control strategies, and execute and monitor these PRRS control strategies. Eventually, the focus of individual projects will be to merge with adjacent regional projects and, depending on overall infection risk and feasibility, pursue PRRS elimination.
  • Author:
    Linhares DCL; Cano JP; Torremorell M; Morrison RB
    Title:
    Comparison of time to PRRSv-stability and production losses between two exposure programs to control PRRSv in sow herds
    Source:
    Prev Vet Med Article in Press (2014)
    Abstract:
    To control and eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) from breeding herds, some veterinarians adopt a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introduction for several months and exposing the pigs to a replicating PRRSv. This was a prospective quasi-experiment that followed 61 breeding herds acutely infected with PRRSv that adopted one of two exposure programs: modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live-resident virus inoculation (LVI). Treatment groups (load-close-expose with MLV or LVI) were compared for: (a) time-to-PRRSv stability (TTS), defined as time in weeks it took to produce PRRSv negative pigs at weaning; (b) the time-to-baseline production (TTBP), defined using statistical process control methods to represent time to recover to the number of pigs weaned per week that herds had prior to PRRSv-detection; and (c) the total production loss in terms of number of pigs weaned per week. TTS and TTBP were compared between treatments using survival analysis. Day 1 of the program was considered to be the day that treatment was administered. Sampling at herds consisted of bleeding 30 due-to-wean piglets on a monthly basis. Serum was tested for PRRSv RNA by RT-PCR. Herds in which PRRSv was not detected over a 90-day period were classified as reaching stability. Multivariate analysis using proportional hazards regression was performed adjusting the effect of treatment on TTBP and TTS to 'severity of PRRSv infection', 'number of whole-herd exposures', 'days from PRRSv-detection to intervention', 'prior PRRSv-infection status' and 'veterinary clinic associated with the herd'. Total loss was compared between groups using multivariate regression analysis adjusted by selected covariates. The median TTS among participating herds was 26.6 weeks (25th to 75th percentile, 21.6-33.0 weeks). The overall TTBP was 16.5 weeks (range 0-29 weeks). The magnitude of production losses following whole-herd exposure averaged 2217 pigs not weaned/1000 sows and was correlated with TTBP. Herds in the MLV group recovered production sooner and had less total loss than herds in the LVI group. TTBP and TTS were significantly shorter and the total loss was significantly less in herds assisted by a specific veterinary clinic and herds that were infected with PRRSv in the 3 years prior to the study. This study provided new metrics to assist veterinarians to decide between methods of exposure to control and eliminate PRRSv from breeding herds. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Author:
    Barrier AC; Coombs TM; Dwyer CM; Haskell MJ; Goby L
    Title:
    Administration of a NSAID (meloxicam) affects lying behaviour after caesarean section in beef cows
    Source:
    Appl Anim Behav Sci 155, 28-33 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Very little is known about the pain experienced by cattle following caesarean section and hence little consideration has been given to managing it. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate activity-related behavioural changes in response to pain, by pre-emptively administering a long acting NSAID to beef cows undergoing caesarean section. One hundred and ten beef cows (55 primiparous, 55 multiparous) that underwent non-elective standardised caesarean section were recruited from eight French veterinary practices. Cows received pre-emptively either meloxicam (n= 63) or placebo (n= 47) according to a blind randomised schedule. Pedometers were attached to each cow's left hindleg and activity was monitored from 0. h (end of surgery) to 68. h post-partum. Time spent lying, number of steps and counts of lying bouts were calculated for the following periods: 0-8. h, 8-16. h, 16-24. h, 24-48. h and 48-68. h and analysed with a REML procedure.Cows receiving meloxicam spent significantly more time lying in the 0-8. h and 8-16. h periods following surgery than cows receiving placebo (+27.4 and +26.4. min, respectively; P<. 0.05) and had more bouts of lying in the first 24. h (P<. 0.05). No differences were seen in the number of steps taken (P>. 0.05). These findings may be interpreted as suggesting that increased lying following caesarean section is an indicator of increased comfort; moreover, it may also suggest that improved welfare, for parturient cows, can be obtained with NSAID treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
  • Author:
    Ulrich R; Puff C; Wewetzer K; Kalkuhl A; Deschl U; Baumgar.tner W
    Title:
    Transcriptional changes in canine distemper virus-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis favor a biphasic mode of demyelination
    Source:
    PLoS ONE 9 (4) art.no.e-5917 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs (Canis familiaris) is suggested to represent a naturally occurring translational model for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis in humans. The aim of this study was a hypothesis-free microarray analysis of the transcriptional changes within cerebellar specimens of five cases of acute, six cases of subacute demyelinating, and three cases of chronic demyelinating and inflammatory CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to twelve non-infected control dogs. Frozen cerebellar specimens were used for analysis of histopathological changes including demyelination, transcriptional changes employing microarrays, and presence of CDV nucleoprotein RNA and protein using microarrays, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 780 differentially expressed probe sets. The dominating change was an up-regulation of genes related to the innate and the humoral immune response, and less distinct the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response in all subtypes of CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to controls. Multiple myelin genes including myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein displayed a selective down-regulation in subacute CDV leukoencephalitis, suggestive of an oligodendrocyte dystrophy. In contrast, a marked up-regulation of multiple immunoglobulin-like expressed sequence tags and the delta polypeptide of the CD3 antigen was observed in chronic CDV leukoencephalitis, in agreement with the hypothesis of an immune-mediated demyelination in the late inflammatory phase of the disease. Analysis of pathways intimately linked to demyelination as determined by morphometry employing correlation-based Gene Set Enrichment Analysis highlighted the pathomechanistic importance of up-regulated genes comprised by the gene ontology terms "viral replication" and "humoral immune response" as well as down-regulated genes functionally related to "metabolite and energy generation". © 2014 Ulrich et al.
  • Author:
    .krnjug I; Rueckert C; Libanova R; Lienenklaus S; Weiss S; Guzmán CA
    Title:
    The mucosal adjuvant cyclic di-AMP exerts immune stimulatory effects on dendritic cells and macrophages
    Source:
    PLoS ONE 9 (4) art.no.e95728 (2014)
    Abstract:
    The cyclic di-nucleotide bis-(3.,5.)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a candidate mucosal adjuvant with proven efficacy in preclinical models. It was shown to promote specific humoral and cellular immune responses following mucosal administration. To date, there is only fragmentary knowledge on the cellular and molecular mode of action of c-di-AMP. Here, we report on the identification of dendritic cells and macrophages as target cells of c-di-AMP. We show that c-di-AMP induces the cell surface up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory molecules as well as the production of interferon-.. Those responses were characterized by in vitro experiments with murine and human immune cells and in vivo studies in mice. Analyses of dendritic cell subsets revealed conventional dendritic cells as principal responders to stimulation by c-di-AMP. We discuss the impact of the reported antigen presenting cell activation on the previously observed adjuvant effects of c-di-AMP in mouse immunization studies. © 2014 .krnjug et al.
  • Author:
    Barrier AC; Coombs TM; Dwyer CM; Haskell MJ; Goby L
    Title:
    Administration of a NSAID (meloxicam) affects lying behaviour after caesarean section in beef cows
    Source:
    Appl Anim Behav Sci Article in Press (2014)
    Abstract:
    Very little is known about the pain experienced by cattle following caesarean section and hence little consideration has been given to managing it. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate activity-related behavioural changes in response to pain, by pre-emptively administering a long acting NSAID to beef cows undergoing caesarean section. One hundred and ten beef cows (55 primiparous, 55 multiparous) that underwent non-elective standardised caesarean section were recruited from eight French veterinary practices. Cows received pre-emptively either meloxicam (n = 63) or placebo (n = 47) according to a blind randomised schedule. Pedometers were attached to each cow's left hindleg and activity was monitored from 0 h (end of surgery) to 68 h post-partum. Time spent lying, number of steps and counts of lying bouts were calculated for the following periods: 0-8 h, 8-16 h, 16-24 h, 24-48 h and 48-68 h and analysed with a REML procedure. Cows receiving meloxicam spent significantly more time lying in the 0-8 h and 8-16 h periods following surgery than cows receiving placebo (+27.4 and +26.4 min, respectively; P < 0.05) and had more bouts of lying in the first 24 h (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in the number of steps taken (P > 0.05). These findings may be interpreted as suggesting that increased lying following caesarean section is an indicator of increased comfort; moreover, it may also suggest that improved welfare, for parturient cows, can be obtained with NSAID treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Author:
    Häggström J; Boswood A; O'Grady M; Jöns O; Smith S; Borgarelli M; Gavaghan B; Kresken J-G; Patteson M; Åblad B; Bussadori CM; Glaus T; Kova.evi. A; Rapp M; Santilli RA; Tidholm A; Eriksson A; Belanger MC; Deinert M; Little CJL; Kvart C; French A; Rønn-Landbo M; Wess G; Eggertsdottir A; O'Sullivan ML; Schneider M; Lombard CW; Dukes-McEwan J; Willis R; Louvet A; Difruscia R
    Title:
    Longitudinal analysis of quality of life, clinical, radiographic, echocardiographic, and laboratory variables in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease receiving pimobendan or benazepril: The QUEST study [Langzeitanalyse von Parametern der Lebensqualität sowie klinischen, radiografischen, echokardiografischen und labordiagnostischen Variablen bei Hunden mit myxomatöser Mitralklappenerkrankung, die mit Pimobendan oder Benazepril behandelt werden: Die QUEST*-Studie]
    Source:
    Kleintierpraxis 59 (3), 117-134 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Background: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. Objectives: To compare, throughout the period of follow-up of dogs that had not yet reached the primary endpoint, the longitudinal effects of pimobendan versus benazepril hydrochloride treatment on quality-of-life (QoL) variables, concomitant congestive heart failure (CHF) treatment, and other outcome variables in dogs suffering from CHF secondary to MMVD. Animals: A total of 260 dogs in CHF because of MMVD. Methods: A prospective single-blinded study with dogs randomized to receive pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril hydrochloride (0.25-1.0 mg/kg/day). Differences in outcome variables and time to intensification of CHF treatment were compared. Results: A total of 124 dogs were randomized to pimobendan and 128 to benazepril. No difference was found between groups in QoL variables during the trial. Time from inclusion to 1st intensification of CHF treatment was longer in the pimobendan group (pimobendan 98 days, IQR 30-276 days versus benazepril 59 days, IQR 11-121 days; P =.0005). Postinclusion, dogs in the pimobendan group had smaller heart size based on VHS score (P =.013) and left ventricular diastolic (P =.035) and systolic (P =.0044) dimensions, higher body temperature (P =.030), serum sodium (P =.0027), and total protein (P =.0003) concentrations, and packed cell volume (P =.030). Incidence of arrhythmias was similar in treatment groups. Conclusions and clinical importance: Pimobendan versus benazepril resulted in similar QoL during the study, but conferred increased time before intensification of CHF treatment. Pimobendan treatment resulted in smaller heart size, higher body temperature, and less retention of free water.
  • Author:
    Guccione J; Pesce A; Pascale M; Tommasini N; Garofalo F; Di Loria A; Cortese L; Salzano C; Ciaramella P
    Title:
    Short communication: Effects of systemic treatment with penethamate hydriodide on udder health and milk yields in dry primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci Article in Press (2014)
    Abstract:
    The effects of penethamate hydriodide (Mamyzin, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) on udder health and milk yields were evaluated in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). An intramuscular administration of 10 million international units was performed in 20 buffaloes at 7 d precalving (treatment group; TG), and 20 animals were The effects of penethamate hydriodide (Mamyzin, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) on udder health and milk yields were evaluated in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). An intramuscular administration of 10 million international units was performed in 20 buffaloes at 7 d precalving (treatment group; TG), and 20 animals were The effects of penethamate hydriodide (Mamyzin, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) on udder health and milk yields were evaluated in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). An intramuscular administration of 10 million international units was performed in 20 buffaloes at 7 d precalving (treatment group; TG), and 20 animals were The effects of penethamate hydriodide (Mamyzin, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) on udder health and milk yields were evaluated in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). An intramuscular administration of 10 million international units was performed in 20 buffaloes at 7 d precalving (treatment group; TG), and 20 animals were enrolled as the control group (CG). Evening milk samplings were performed at 10, 30, and 60 d in milk (DIM). Somatic cell count (SCC) values were evaluated on composite milk samples, whereas bacteriological culture and California Mastitis Test were performed on quarter milk. Daily milk yields were recorded after all milkings. After 60 DIM, composite milk samples from each animal were collected for monthly SCC and bacteriological culture until drying off. Statistically significant differences were found between the prevalence of mastitic quarters in the 2 groups at 10 and 30 DIM, and between the incidence of mastitic animals during the examined period (TG: 4/20, 20% vs. CG: 10/20, 50%). Even though lower and higher values of SCC and milk yields were found in TG during each sampling, statistically significant differences were only found at 30 (SCC) and 60 DIM (milk yields). In our study, the antibiotic administration precalving showed good bactericidal activity against the most common udder-specific pathogens that cause mastitis in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes, and greater efficacy was observed at 10 and 30 DIM compared with 60 DIM. Given the significant decrease in SCC and increase in yields achieved, use of this antibiotic could be economically beneficial in buffalo breeding. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.
  • Author:
    Häggström J; Boswood A; O'Grady M; Jöns O; Smith S; Swift S; Borgarelli M; Gavaghan B; Kresken J-G; Patteson M; Åblad B; Bussadori CM; Glaus T; Kova.evi. A; Rapp M; Santilli RA; Tidholm A; Eriksson A; Belanger MC; Deinert M; Little CJL; Kvart C; French A; Rønn-Landbo M; Wess G; Eggertsdottir A; Lynne O'Sullivan M; Schneider M; Lombard CW; Dukes-Mcewan J; Willis R; Louvet A; Difruscia R
    Title:
    Longitudinal analysis of quality of life, clinical, radiographic, echocardiographic, and laboratory variables in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease receiving pimobendan or benazepril: The QUEST study
    Source:
    J Vet Intern Med 27 (6), 1441-1451 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Background: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. Objectives: To compare, throughout the period of follow-up of dogs that had not yet reached the primary endpoint, the longitudinal effects of pimobendan versus benazepril hydrochloride treatment on quality-of-life (QoL) variables, concomitant congestive heart failure (CHF) treatment, and other outcome variables in dogs suffering from CHF secondary to MMVD. Animals: A total of 260 dogs in CHF because of MMVD. Methods: A prospective single-blinded study with dogs randomized to receive pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril hydrochloride (0.25-1.0 mg/kg/day). Differences in outcome variables and time to intensification of CHF treatment were compared. Results: A total of 124 dogs were randomized to pimobendan and 128 to benazepril. No difference was found between groups in QoL variables during the trial. Time from inclusion to 1st intensification of CHF treatment was longer in the pimobendan group (pimobendan 98 days, IQR 30-276 days versus benazepril 59 days, IQR 11-121 days; P = .0005). Postinclusion, dogs in the pimobendan group had smaller heart size based on VHS score (P = .013) and left ventricular diastolic (P = .035) and systolic (P = .0044) dimensions, higher body temperature (P = .030), serum sodium (P = .0027), and total protein (P = .0003) concentrations, and packed cell volume (P = .030). Incidence of arrhythmias was similar in treatment groups. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Pimobendan versus benazepril resulted in similar QoL during the study, but conferred increased time before intensification of CHF treatment. Pimobendan treatment resulted in smaller heart size, higher body temperature, and less retention of free water. © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
  • Author:
    Häggström J; Lord PF; Höglund K; Ljungvall I; Jöns O; Kvart C; Hansson K
    Title:
    Short-term hemodynamic and neuroendocrine effects of pimobendan and benazapril in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease and congestive heart failure
    Source:
    J Vet Intern Med 27 (6), 1452-1462 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Background: Pimobendan and benazepril are frequently used with diuretics to treat dogs in congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Aim: To compare the short-term effects of pimobendan versus benazepril on pump function, heart size, and neuroendocrine profile in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Animals: Sixteen client-owned dogs. Material and methods: Seven-day prospective single-blinded study of dogs stabilized on furosemide monotherapy, randomized to pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril (0.25-1.0 mg/kg/day). Dogs had first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography, and heart size was measured by radiography and echocardiography. Circulating neuroendocrine hormones were measured. Results: Baseline variables did not differ between treatment groups. Greater decreases in the pimobendan than in the benazepril group were found for heart rate (P = .001), heart rate-normalized pulmonary transit time (P = .02), left atrial size (P = .03), and systolic and diastolic left ventricular diameters (P < .001 and P = .03, respectively) and volumes (P < .001 and P = .02, respectively), whereas ejection fraction increased more (P = .02) in the pimobendan group. Of the neuroendocrine hormones, only N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-ProANP) differed (P = .04) between groups. Within groups, plasma aldosterone increased (P = .01), and NT-proANP (P = .01) and NT-proB-type (P = .02) natriuretic peptide decreased in the pimobendan group, and NT-proANP (P = .02) and plasma vasopressin (P = .01) decreased in the benazepril group. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Pimobendan improves short-term cardiac function more than benazepril in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Pimobendan treatment enables the heart to work at smaller end-systolic and diastolic dimensions while maintaining adequate forward stroke volume. Some of the treatment responses found in neuroendocrine profile might have therapeutic relevance. © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
  • Author:
    Platt R; Ng T; Glover S; Roof M; Kimura K; Roth JA
    Title:
    Canine peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotyping by 7-color multiparameter flow cytometry
    Source:
    Anal Quant Cytol Histol 35 (4), 197-204 (2013)
    Abstract:
    OBJECTIVE: To characterize baseline canine lymphocyte phenotypes including lymphocytes coexpressing multiple markers by novel 7-color multiparameter flow cytometry. STUDY DESIGN: Fresh canine peripheral blood lymphocytes of 79 healthy 26-week-old Beagle or Beagle-mix dogs were stained and analyzed. RESULTS: The high number of samples and acquired flow data (averaging 1.9 × 105 cells/sample) allowed the detection of minor lymphocyte subsets coexpressing multiple lymphocyte markers. The averaged percentages of major lymphocyte subsets of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD21+ and .. TCR+ cells from this study were 74.0, 43.6, 14.3, 9.6, and 0.2, respectively, which were comparable but uniquely different from other reports as they were simultaneously detected in the same sample. We demonstrated that the commonly used CD21 and CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) clones, previously recommended not to be used in the same staining, could and should be used together with the proper steps of lymphocyte gating. We found a high percentage (10.3%) of unidentified CD21-CD3+CD4- CD8- .. TCR- lymphocyte subset that has never been reported. The intensive gating strategy and the mean percentages of each lymphocyte subset to their parent subsets and to the total lymphocyte population are presented and discussed. CONCLUSION: The canine lymphocyte phenotypes were fully characterized. This novel multiparameter flow cytometry method is a powerful approach to in-crease the accuracy of lymphocyte phenotyping in dogs. © Science Printers and Publishers, Inc.
  • Author:
    Hoenig M; Traas AM; Schaeffer DJ
    Title:
    Evaluation of routine hematology profile results and fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations in lean, overweight, obese, and diabetic cats
    Source:
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 243 (9), 1302-1309 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Objective-To compare results of hematologic testing in nondiabetic and diabetic cats to identify possible indicators of alterations in long-term glucose control. Design-Cross-sectional study. Animals-117 client-owned cats (76 nondiabetic cats [25 with normal body condition, 27 overweight, and 24 obese] and 41 naïve [n = 21] and treated [20] diabetic cats). Procedures-Signalment and medical history, including data on feeding practices, were collected. A body condition score was assigned, and feline body mass index was calculated. Complete blood counts and serum biochemical analyses, including determination of fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations, were performed. Urine samples were obtained and analyzed. Results-Glucose and fructosamine concentrations were significantly higher in the naïve and treated diabetic cats than in the nondiabetic cats. Insulin and proinsulin concentrations were highest in the obese cats but had great individual variation. Few other variables were significantly different among cat groups. Most cats, even when obese or diabetic, had unlimited access to food. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that cats at risk of developing diabetes (ie, overweight and obese cats) could not be distinguished from cats with a normal body condition on the basis of results of isolated hematologic testing. A longitudinal study is indicated to follow nondiabetic cats over a period of several years to identify those that eventually develop diabetes. Findings also suggested that dietary education of cat owners might be inadequate.
  • Author:
    Häggström J; Lord PF; Höglund K; Ljungvall I; Jöns O; Kvart C; Hansson K
    Title:
    Short-Term Hemodynamic and Neuroendocrine Effects of Pimobendan and Benazapril in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease and Congestive Heart Failure
    Source:
    J Vet Intern Med Article in press (2013)
    Abstract:
    Background: Pimobendan and benazepril are frequently used with diuretics to treat dogs in congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Aim: To compare the short-term effects of pimobendan versus benazepril on pump function, heart size, and neuroendocrine profile in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Animals: Sixteen client-owned dogs. Material and methods: Seven-day prospective single-blinded study of dogs stabilized on furosemide monotherapy, randomized to pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril (0.25-1.0 mg/kg/day). Dogs had first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography, and heart size was measured by radiography and echocardiography. Circulating neuroendocrine hormones were measured. Results: Baseline variables did not differ between treatment groups. Greater decreases in the pimobendan than in the benazepril group were found for heart rate (P = .001), heart rate-normalized pulmonary transit time (P = .02), left atrial size (P = .03), and systolic and diastolic left ventricular diameters (P < .001 and P = .03, respectively) and volumes (P < .001 and P = .02, respectively), whereas ejection fraction increased more (P = .02) in the pimobendan group. Of the neuroendocrine hormones, only N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-ProANP) differed (P = .04) between groups. Within groups, plasma aldosterone increased (P = .01), and NT-proANP (P = .01) and NT-proB-type (P = .02) natriuretic peptide decreased in the pimobendan group, and NT-proANP (P = .02) and plasma vasopressin (P = .01) decreased in the benazepril group. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Pimobendan improves short-term cardiac function more than benazepril in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Pimobendan treatment enables the heart to work at smaller end-systolic and diastolic dimensions while maintaining adequate forward stroke volume. Some of the treatment responses found in neuroendocrine profile might have therapeutic relevance. © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
  • Author:
    Walker RS; Miller JE; Monlezun CJ; LaMay D; Navarre C; Ensley D
    Title:
    Gastrointestinal nematode infection and performance of weaned stocker calves in response to anthelmintic control strategies
    Source:
    Vet Parasitol 197 (1) (2), 152-159 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite control recommendations are in a state of flux because of the increase in anthelmintic resistant cattle parasites, such as Cooperia spp. In addition, Cooperia spp. infection is typically high in warm-season grass pastures and can affect growth performance of grazing stocker calves in the Gulf Coast Region. This study evaluated the effects of moxidectin pour-on, oxfendazole oral suspension, or a combination of the two given at separate times on infection and performance of weaned beef calves grazing summer forages. Steers (n= 42) and heifers (n= 31) were stratified by sex, d-11 fecal egg count (FEC), and d-1 shrunk body weight (BW) to one of 10 pastures with four anthelmintic treatments and one control. Treatments included: (1) oxfendazole given on d 0 and moxidectin on d 73 (O. +. M), (2) moxidectin given on d 0 and oxfendazole on d 73 (M. +. O), (3) moxidectin given on d 0 (M), (4) oxfendazole given on d 0 (O) and (5) no anthelmintic given (CON). Calves grazed for d-110 beginning May 27th. Response variables were FEC (collected on d-11, 14, 31, 45, 59, 73, 87 and 108), coprocultures (evaluated for d 87 and 108), final shrunk BW, shrunk BW gain, average daily gain (ADG), and full BW gain (collected on d 31, 59, 73, 87, and 108). Calves treated with either oxfendazole (O. +. M and O) or moxidectin (M. +. O and M) on d 0 had significantly lower (P<. 0.001) FEC than the CON calves on d 14, 31 and 45. However, the M. +. O treated calves had significantly higher (P<. 0.001) FEC than both oxfendazole treated groups. In addition, calves treated with a second dewormer on d 73 (O. +. M and M. +. O) had significantly lower (P<. 0.001) FEC by d 87 than the CON or M treated calves. Shrunk BW gain and ADG were significantly greater (P= 0.005) for the O. +. M compared to the M treated and CON calves, but comparable with the M. +. O and O treated calves, respectively. Coprocultures sampled on d 87 and 108 for calves not receiving a second dewormer were predominantly Cooperia spp. and Ostertagia spp. On d 87, no larvae were recovered from the M. +. O treated calves, whereas the O. +. M treated calves had 94% Cooperia spp. and 3% Ostertagia spp. recovered. Providing a benzimidazole with a macrocyclic lactone given at two different periods may provide better GIN parasite control and improve animal gains for stocker calves grazing warm-season grass pastures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
  • Author:
    Alonso C; Davies PR; Polson DD; Dee SA; Lazarus WF
    Title:
    Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds
    Source:
    Prev Vet Med 111 (3) (4), 268-277 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7. km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
  • Author:
    Gostelow R; Bridger N; Syme HM
    Title:
    Plasma-Free Metanephrine and Free Normetanephrine Measurement for the Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma in Dogs
    Source:
    J Vet Intern Med 27 (1), 83-90 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Background: Measurement of plasma-free metanephrines is the test of choice to identify pheochromocytoma in human patients. Objectives: To establish the sensitivity and specificity of plasma-free metanephrine (fMN) and free normetanephrine (fNMN) concentrations to diagnose pheochromocytoma in dogs. Animals: Forty-five client-owned dogs (8 dogs with pheochromocytoma, 11 dogs with adrenocortical tumors, 15 dogs with nonadrenal disease, and 11 healthy dogs.) Methods: A prospective study. EDTA plasma was collected from diseased and healthy dogs and submitted for fMN and fNMN measurement by liquid chromatography­ tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results: Free MN concentration (median [range]) was significantly higher in dogs with pheochromocytoma (8.15 [1.73-175.231 nmoi/L) than in healthy dogs (0.95 [0.68-3.081 nmoi/L; P < .01) and dogs with adrenocortical tumors (0.92 [0.25-2.511 nmoi/L; P < .001), but was not different from dogs with nonadrenal disease (1.91 [0.41- 6.571 nmoi/L; P 2! .05). Free NMN concentration was significantly higher in dogs with pheochromocytoma (63.89 [10.19-190.31] nmoi/L) than in healthy dogs (2.54 [1.59-4.171 nmoi/L; P < .001), dogs with nonadrenal disease (3.30 [1.30-10.101 nmoi!L; P < .001), and dogs with adrenocortical tumors (2.96 [1.92-5.011 nmoi!L); P < 0.01). When used to diagnose pheochromocytoma, a fMN concentration of 4.18 nmoi/L had a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 97.3%, and a fNMN concentration of 5.52 nmoi/L had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 97.6%. Conclusions and Clinicallmportance: Plasma fNMN concentration has excellent sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in dogs, whereas fMN concentration has moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity. Measurement of plasma-free metanephrines provides an effective, noninvasive, means of identifying dogs with pheochromocytoma. © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
  • Author:
    Foerster M
    Title:
    The treatment of idiopathic epilepsy [Die Therapie der idiopathischen Epilepsie]
    Source:
    Kleintierpraxis 58 (7), 380-381 (2013)
  • Author:
    Li C; Li Z; Zou Y; Wicht O; van Kuppeveld FJM; Rottier PJM; Bosch BJ
    Title:
    Manipulation of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Genome Using Targeted RNA Recombination
    Source:
    PLoS ONE 8 (8) e69997 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe economic losses in the swine industry in China and other Asian countries. Infection usually leads to an acute, often lethal diarrhea in piglets. Despite the impact of the disease, no system is yet available to manipulate the viral genome which has severely hampered research on this virus until today. We have established a reverse genetics system for PEDV based on targeted RNA recombination that allows the modification of the 3.-end of the viral genome, which encodes the structural proteins and the ORF3 protein. Using this system, we deleted the ORF3 gene entirely from the viral genome and showed that the ORF3 protein is not essential for replication of the virus in vitro. In addition, we inserted heterologous genes (i.e. the GFP and Renilla luciferase genes) at two positions in the viral genome, either as an extra expression cassette or as a replacement for the ORF3 gene. We demonstrated the expression of both GFP and Renilla luciferase as well as the application of these viruses by establishing a convenient and rapid virus neutralization assay. The new PEDV reverse genetics system will enable functional studies of the structural proteins and the accessory ORF3 protein and will allow the rational design and development of next generation PEDV vaccines. © 2013 Li et al.
  • Author:
    Wohlsein P; Deschl U; Baumgärtner W
    Title:
    Nonlesions, Unusual Cell Types, and Postmartern Artifacts in the Central Nervaus System of Domestic Animals
    Source:
    Vet Pathol 50 (1), 122-143 (2013)
    Abstract:
    ln the central nervaus system (CNS) of domestic animals, numerous specialized normal structures, unusual cell types, findings of uncertain or no significance, artifacts, and various postmartern alterations can be observed. They may cause confusion for inexperienced pathologists and those not specialized in neuropathology, leading to misinterpretations and wrang diagnoses. Alternatively, changes may mask underlying neuropathological processes. "Specialized structures" comprising the hippocampus and the circumventricular organs, including the vascular organ of the Iamina terminalis, subfornical organ, subcommissural organ, pineal gland, median eminence/neurohypophyseal complex, choroid plexus, and area postrema, are displayed. Unusual cell types, including cerebellar external germinal cells, CNS progenitor cells, and Kolmer cells, are presented. ln addition, some newly recognized cell types as of yet incompletely understood significance and functionality, such as synantocytes and aldynoglia, are introduced and described. Unusual reactive astrocytes in cats, central chromatolysis, neuronal vacuolation, spheroids, spongiosis, satellitosis, melanosis, neuromelanin, lipofuscin, polyglucosan bodies, and psammoma bodies may represent incidental findings of uncertain or no significance and should not be confused with significant microscopic changes. Auto- and heterolysis as weil as handling and histotechnological processing may cause postmartern morphological changes of the CNS, including vacuolization, cerebellar conglutination, dark neurons, Buscaino bodies, freezing, and shrinkage artifacts, all of which have to be differentiated from genuine lesions. Postmartern invasion of micro-organisms should not be confused with intravital infections. Awareness of these different changes and their recognition are a prerequisite for identifying genuine lesions and may help to formulate a professional morphological and etiological diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2012.
  • Author:
    Mead J
    Title:
    Use of pexion
    Source:
    Vet Rec 173 (3), 78 (2013)
    Abstract:
    -
  • Author:
    Wetzel M; Henke J; Martin A; Ittrich C
    Title:
    Behavioral and Neurochemical Analyses of Different Housing Conditions in C57BL/6J Mice: Implication for the 3Rs
    Source:
    J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 51 (5), 680-680 (2013)
  • Author:
    Quester I; Peters M; Klein S; Deschl U; Wohlsein P
    Title:
    Case report: Infections with Toxoplasma gondii and Frenkelia sp. in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) [Fallbericht: Infektionen mit Toxoplasma gondii und Frenkelia sp. bei Chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera)]
    Source:
    Prakt Tierarzt 93 (6), 494-502 (2012)
    Abstract:
    A four to five years old male chinchilla died after a few days of reduced food intake. A one year old female chinchilla was also submitted for necropsy. It originated from a different breeding herd, where twelve dams and four offspring had died within three weeks with apathy and head tilt. Histologically, both animals suffered from a protozoal necrotising encephalitis with intra-and perilesional protozoal microorganisms that were found free or aggregated in cysts of 40-80 .m. In addition, in the brain of the dam numerous protozoal cysts up to 250 .m in diameter without inflammatory response were detected suggestive of Frenkelia microti cysts. In several internal organs of the male including heart, lung, gastro-intestinal tract, liver, pancreas, musculature, testis, adrenal and thyroid glands inflammatory changes were present. Placenta and liver of the dam also showed inflammation. Immunohistology revealed Toxoplasma gondii in both animals. In chinchillas with central nervous signs or sudden death toxoplasmosis should be considered as differential diagnosis. © Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.
  • Author:
    Guillot M; Moreau M; Heit M; Martel-Pelletier J; Pelletier J-P; Troncy E
    Title:
    Characterization of osteoarthritis in cats and meloxicam efficacy using objective chronic pain evaluation tools
    Source:
    Vet J Lond 196 (3), 360-367 (2013)
    Abstract:
    This study aimed to characterize osteoarthritis (OA)-related chronic pain and disability in experimental cats with naturally occurring OA. Peak vertical ground reaction force (PVF), accelerometer-based motor activity (MA) and the von Frey anesthesiometer-induced paw withdrawal threshold were used to define OA and to test the efficacy of meloxicam. A diagnosis of OA was based on radiographic and orthopedic examinations. Cats with OA (n= 39) and classified as non-OA (n= 6) were used to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the parameters to assess OA over 3. weeks while being administered placebo medication. A randomised parallel design study was then used to investigate the effects on OA of daily oral meloxicam treatment for 4. weeks at different dose rates (0.025. mg/kg, n= 10. mg/kg; 0.04. mg/kg, n= 10; 0.05. mg/kg, n= 9), compared to cats administered a placebo (n= 10).The test-retest repeatability for each tool was good (intra-class correlation coefficient .0.6). The PVF and the von Frey anesthesiometer-induced paw withdrawal threshold discriminated OA (P< 0.05). Meloxicam did not add to the PVF improvement observed in placebo-treated cats during the treatment period (adj- P. 0.01). The 0.025 and the 0.05. mg/kg meloxicam-treated cats experienced a higher night-time (17:00-06:58. h) MA intensity during the treatment period compared to the placebo period (adj- P= 0.04, and 0.02, respectively) and this effect was not observed in the placebo group. The high allodynia rate observed in the 0.04. mg/kg meloxicam-treated group may explain the lower responsiveness to the drug. The von Frey anesthesiometer-induced paw withdrawal threshold demonstrated no responsiveness to meloxicam. The results from this study indicated that daily oral meloxicam administration for 4. weeks provided pain relief according to night-time MA. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Author:
    Gorden PJ; van der List M; Lehman FD; Lantz RK; Constable PD
    Title:
    Elimination kinetics of cephapirin sodium in milk after an 8-day extended therapy program of daily intramammary infusion in healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci 96 (7), 4455-4464 (2013)
    Abstract:
    The objective of this study was to determine the elimination kinetics of extended therapy with intramammary (IMM) cephapirin in lactating dairy cattle. Eight healthy Holstein-Friesian cows were administered cephapirin (200mg) into all 4 mammary glands every 24 h after milking. Cows were milked 3 times per day and concentrations of cephapirin and desacetyl cephapirin were determined in bucket milk using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Milk concentration-time data after the last of the 8 IMM infusions were fitted using compartment and noncompartmental models. The maximum cephapirin concentration was 128±57 .g/mL (mean ± SD), the elimination rate constant from the central compartment was 0.278±0.046 (h-1), clearance was 0.053±0.023 L/h, the half time for elimination was 2.55±0.40 h, and the mean residence time was 2.65±0.79 h. The cephapirin concentration was below the approved tolerance in all cows by 96 h after the last infusion, which is the labeled withholding time for the preparation used. Extended therapy for 8 d provided milk cephapirin concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for common gram-positive mastitis pathogens (0.1 to 1.0 .g/mL) for the duration of therapy and for an additional 16 to 32 h after the end of treatment. Our findings suggest that this IMM cephapirin sodium formulation, which is labeled for 2 doses 12 h apart, could be administered at a 24-h interval for up to 8 d in cows milked 3 times per day, with no significant effect on residue levels by 96 h after the last treatment. Longer withdrawal times would be prudent for cows with low milk production. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.
  • Author:
    Held H-D; Wein M; Pieper M
    Title:
    Aterial and venous pharmacokinetic plasma profiles of tiotropium in high temporal resolution after inhalation administration to Beagle dogs
    Source:
    ATS 2013
  • Author:
    Olsen C; Wang C; Christopher-Hennings J; Doolittle K; Harmon KM; Abate S; Kittawornrat A; Lizano S; Main R; Nelson EA; Otterson T; Panyasing Y; Rademacher C; Rauh R; Shah R; Zimmerman J
    Title:
    Probability of detecting Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection using pen-based swine oral fluid specimens as a function of within-pen prevalence
    Source:
    J Vet Diagn Invest 25 (3), 328-335 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Pen-based oral fluid sampling has proven to be an efficient method for surveillance of infectious diseases in swine populations. To better interpret diagnostic results, the performance of oral fluid assays (antibody- and nucleic acid-based) must be established for pen-based oral fluid samples. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine the probability of detecting Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in pen-based oral fluid samples from pens of known PRRSV prevalence. In 1 commercial swine barn, 25 pens were assigned to 1 of 5 levels of PRRSV prevalence (0%, 4%, 12%, 20%, or 36%) by placing a fixed number (0, 1, 3, 5, or 9) of PRRSV-positive pigs (14 days post PRRSV modified live virus vaccination) in each pen. Prior to placement of the vaccinated pigs, 1 oral fluid sample was collected from each pen. Thereafter, 5 oral fluid samples were collected from each pen, for a total of 150 samples. To confirm individual pig PRRSV status, serum samples from the PRRSV-negative pigs (n = 535) and the PRRSV vaccinated pigs (n = 90) were tested for PRRSV antibodies and PRRSV RNA. The 150 pen-based oral fluid samples were assayed for PRRSV antibody and PRRSV RNA at 6 laboratories. Among the 100 samples from pens containing ?1 positive pig (?4% prevalence) and tested at the 6 laboratories, the mean positivity was 62% for PRRSV RNA and 61% for PRRSV antibody. These results support the use of pen-based oral fluid sampling for PRRSV surveillance in commercial pig populations. © 2013 The Author(s).
  • Author:
    Alonso C; Davies PR; Polson DD; Dee SA; Lazarus WF
    Title:
    Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds
    Source:
    Prev Vet Med Article in press (2013)
    Abstract:
    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7 km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Author:
    Gorden P J; van der List M; Lehman F D; Lantz R K; Constable P D
    Title:
    Elimination kinetics of cephapirin sodium in milk after an 8-day extended therapy program of daily intramammary infusion in healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci Article in Press (2013)
    Abstract:
    The objective of this study was to determine the elimination kinetics of extended therapy with intramammary (IMM) cephapirin in lactating dairy cattle. Eight healthy Holstein-Friesian cows were administered cephapirin (200 mg) into all 4 mammary glands every 24 h after milking. Cows were milked 3 times per day and concentrations of cephapirin and desacetyl cephapirin were determined in bucket milk using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Milk concentration-time data after the last of the 8 IMM infusions were fitted using compartment and noncompartmental models. The maximum cephapirin concentration was 128 ± 57 ?g/mL (mean ± SD), the elimination rate constant from the central compartment was 0.278 ± 0.046 (h-1), clearance was 0.053 ± 0.023 L/h, the half time for elimination was 2.55 ± 0.40 h, and the mean residence time was 2.65 ± 0.79 h. The cephapirin concentration was below the approved tolerance in all cows by 96 h after the last infusion, which is the labeled withholding time for the preparation used. Extended therapy for 8 d provided milk cephapirin concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for common gram-positive mastitis pathogens (0.1 to 1.0 ?g/mL) for the duration of therapy and for an additional 16 to 32 h after the end of treatment. Our findings suggest that this IMM cephapirin sodium formulation, which is labeled for 2 doses 12 h apart, could be administered at a 24-h interval for up to 8 d in cows milked 3 times per day, with no significant effect on residue levels by 96 h after the last treatment. Longer withdrawal times would be prudent for cows with low milk production. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.
  • Author:
    Summerfield N J; Boswood A; O'Grady M R; Gordon S G; Dukes-Mc-Ewan J; Oyama M A; Smith S; Patteson M; French A T; Culshaw G J; Braz-Ruivo L; Estrada A; O'Sullivan M L; Loureiro J; Willis R; Watson P
    Title:
    Efficacy of pimobendan in the prevention of congestive heart failure or sudden death in Doberman Pinschers with preclinical dilated cardiomyopathy (The PROTECT Study) [Wirksamkeit von Pimobendan bei der Prävention von kongestiver Herzinsuffizienz oder plötzlichem Herztod bei Dobermann Pinschern mit präklinischer dilatativer Kardiomyopathie (Die PROTECT-Studie)]
    Source:
    Kleintierpraxis 58 (4), 169-186 (2013)
    Abstract:
    The benefit of pimobendan in delaying the progression of preclinical dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Dobermans is not reported. The hypothesis is that chronic oral administration of pimobendan to Dobermans with preclinical DCM will delay the onset of CHF or sudden death and improve survival. Seventy-six client-owned Dobermans recruited at 10 centers in the UK and North America. The trial was a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group multicenter study. Dogs were allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive pimobendan (Vetmedin * capsules) or visually identical placebo. The composite primary endpoint was prospectively defined as either onset of CHF or sudden death. Time to death from all causes was a secondary endpoint. The proportion of dogs reaching the primary endpoint was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.1). The median time to the primary endpoint (onset of CHF or sudden death) was significantly longer in the pimobendan (718 days, IQR 441-1152 days) versus the placebo group (441 days, IQR 151-641 days) (log-rank P = 0.0088). The median survival time was significantly longer in the pimobendan (623 days, IQR 491-1531 days) versus the placebo group (466 days, IQR 236-710 days) (log-rank P = 0.034). The administration of pimobendan to Dobermans with preclinical DCM prolongs the time to the onset of clinical signs and extends survival. Treatment of dogs in the preclinical phase of this common cardiovascular disorder with pimobendan can lead to improved outcome.
  • Author:
    White B J; Anderson D E; DuCharme A; Miesner M; Larson R L; Amrine D
    Title:
    Multimodal assessment of biometric changes in injection sites and physiology and behavior in beef calves receiving two different clostridial immunizations compared to negative controls
    Source:
    Int J appl res vet med 11 (1), 46-55 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Clostridial immunizations are commonly administered to cattle, and understanding the physiologic and behavioral effects of vaccination may influence preventative health program design. A randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial was conducted using multimodal assessment of injection sites, physiologic, and behavioral changes in calves receiving one of two clostridial vaccinations and negative controls. Calf response after injection was monitored daily utilizing physiologic parameters (rectal temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, and body weight), measurements of injection site reaction (lesion surface area, depth, and volume), skin surface temperature (thermography), and avoidance response to pressure at injection site (algometer). Calf behavior was remotely monitored using pedometers, accelerometers, and a remote triangulation system. Calves vaccinated with the clostridial products had larger injection site lesions and greater injection site surface temperature ratios compared to saline controls. The pressure required to stimulate a reaction differed among treatments and this effect was modified by treatment group with control calves requiring more pressure to stimulate avoidance response early in the trial. The percent of time calves spent standing was greater in one of the vaccine groups relative to controls as measured by the accelerometers. The location monitoring system revealed differences among treatment groups relative to time spent at the hay and grain feeding areas. This research illustrates that clostridial vaccination induced multiple changes in injection site, physiological, and behavioral variables as compared to negative controls. The biometric profile generated by the combination of multimodal assessment tools employed in this project demonstrates the advantages of objective assessment to describe effects of vaccine administration.
  • Author:
    Braucher D R; Henningson J N; Loving C L; Vincen A L; Kim E; Steitz J; Gambotto A A; Keehrli Jr M E
    Title:
    Intranasal vaccination with replication-defective adenovirus type 5 encoding influenza virus hemagglutinin elicits protective immunity to homologous challenge and partial protection to heterologous challenge in pigs
    Source:
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 19 (11), 1722-1729 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Influenza A virus (IAV) is widely circulating in the swine population and causes significant economic losses. To combat IAV infection, the swine industry utilizes adjuvanted whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines, using a prime-boost strategy. These vaccines can provide sterilizing immunity toward homologous virus but often have limited efficacy against a heterologous infection. There is a need for vaccine platforms that induce mucosal and cell-mediated immunity that is cross-reactive to heterologous viruses and can be produced in a short time frame. Nonreplicating adenovirus 5 vector (Ad5) vaccines are one option, as they can be produced rapidly and given intranasally to induce local immunity. Thus, we compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of a single intranasal dose of an Ad5-vectored hemagglutinin (Ad5-HA) vaccine to those of a traditional intramuscular administration of WIV vaccine. Ad5-HA vaccination induced a mucosal IgA response toward homologous IAV and primed an antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?) response against both challenge viruses. The Ad5-HA vaccine provided protective immunity to homologous challenge and partial protection against heterologous challenge, unlike the WIV vaccine. Nasal shedding was significantly reduced and virus was cleared from the lung by day 5 postinfection following heterologous challenge of Ad5-HA-vaccinated pigs. However, the WIV-vaccinated pigs displayed vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) following heterologous challenge, characterized by enhanced macroscopic lung lesions. This study demonstrates that a single intranasal vaccination with an Ad5-HA construct can provide complete protection from homologous challenge and partial protection from heterologous challenge, as opposed to VAERD, which can occur with adjuvanted WIV vaccines. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
  • Author:
    Catchpole B; Adams J P; Holder A L; Short A D; Ollier W E R; Kennedy L J
    Title:
    Genetics of canine diabetes mellitus: Are the diabetes susceptibility genes identified in humans involved in breed susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs?
    Source:
    Vet J Lond 195 (2), 139-147 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in companion animals, characterised by hyperglycaemia, glycosuria and weight loss, resulting from an absolute or relative deficiency in the pancreatic hormone insulin. There are breed differences in susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs, with the Samoyed breed being overrepresented, while Boxers are relatively absent in the UK population of diabetic dogs, suggesting that genetic factors play an important role in determining susceptibility to the disease. A number of genes, linked with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in humans, are associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus in dogs, some of which appear to be relatively breed-specific. Diabetes mellitus in dogs has been associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (dog leucocyte antigen; DLA), with similar haplotypes and genotypes being identified in the most susceptible breeds. A region containing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and several polymorphisms have been identified in the canine insulin gene, with some alleles associated with susceptibility or resistance to diabetes mellitus in a breed-specific manner. Polymorphisms in the canine CTLA4 promoter and in other immune response genes are associated with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in a number of pedigree breeds. Genome wide association studies are currently underway that should shed further light on the genetic factors responsible for the breed profile seen in the diabetic dog population. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Author:
    Al-Ghamdi GM; Guedes RMC; Sage AM; Hayden DW; Neubauer A; Ames TR
    Title:
    Reproduction of proliferative enteropathy in foals using porcine intestinal mucosal homogenate
    Source:
    Bulg J Vet Med 15 (4), 273-282 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Proliferative enteropathy (PE) is an intestinal disease that affects equine and several other species. The goal of this study is to determine whether proliferative enteropathy could be experimentally reproduced in foals. Seven foals were divided into two groups: A (n=5), and B (n=2). The foals were inoculated intragastrically with porcine intestinal mucosal homogenate (group A), or a placebo challenge (group B). Ante mortem and post mortem tests were performed. All foals were euthanised an day 22 post challenge. Physical examination detected variable signs of depression, colic, decreased appetite, diarrhoea, dehydration and emaciation in three foals in group A. At necropsy, one foal (foal 5, group A) was severely emaciated, the wall of the ileum and distal jejunum was thickened and the mucosa was corrugated and hyperaemic. Histologically, hyperplasia of immature enterocytes and reduced number of Paneth and goblet cells were observed. PCR confirmed the presence of Lawsonia intracellularis. The foals in groups A were positive for L. intracellularis by immunohistochemistry. The control foals (group B) remained physically normal, had no pathologic lesions and were negative by immunohistochemistry. PE was reproduced in foals using intestinal mucosal homogenate. Physical, gross and histopathologic alterations typical of PE were detected in some foals. The presence of L. intracellularis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and/or PCR. The rote of L. intracellularis from different species in the etiopathogenesis of PE in the horse was established.
  • Author:
    Catchpole B; Adams JP; Holder AL; Short AD; Ollier WER; Kennedy LJ
    Title:
    Genetics of canine diabetes melitus: Are the diabetes susceptibility genes identified in humans involved in breed susceptibility to diabetes melitus in dogs?
    Source:
    Vet J (Lond) 195 (2), 139-147 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in companion animals, characterised by hyperglycaemia, glycosuria and weight loss, resulting from an absolute or relative deficiency in the pancreatic hormone insulin. There are breed differences in susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs, with the Samoyed breed being overrepresented, while Boxers are relatively absent in the UK population of diabetic dogs, suggesting that genetic factors play an important role in determining susceptibility to the disease. A number of genes, linked with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in humans, are associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus in dogs, some of which appear to be relatively breed-specific. Diabetes mellitus in dogs has been associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (dog leucocyte antigen; DLA), with similar haplotypes and genotypes being identified in the most susceptible breeds. A region containing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and several polymorphisms have been identified in the canine insulin gene, with some alleles associated with susceptibility or resistance to diabetes mellitus in a breed-specific manner. Polymorphisms in the canine CTLA4 promoter and in other immune response genes are associated with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in a number of pedigree breeds. Genome wide association studies are currently underway that should shed further light on the genetic factors responsible for the breed profile seen in the diabetic dog population.
  • Author:
    Kamphuis E; Hanschmann KM; Meyer H; Goepfert C; Kraemer B; Cussler K
    Title:
    Potency estimation of vaccine batches remains unaffected by anesthesia for intracerebral injection.
    Source:
    Biologicals 40 (6), 451-455 (2012)
  • Author:
    Huang Y-W; Harrall KK; Dryman BA; Opriessnig T; Vaughn EM; Roof MB; Meng X-J
    Title:
    Serological profile of torque teno sus virus species 1 (TTSuV1) in pigs and antigenic relationships between two tsuv1 genotypes (1a and 1b), between two species (TTSuV-1 and 2) and between porcine and human anelloviruses.
    Source:
    J Virol 86 (19), 10628-10639 (2012)
    Abstract:
    The family Anelloviridae includes human and animal torque teno viruses (TTVs) with extensive genetic diversity. The antigenic diversity among anelloviruses has never been assessed. Using torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) as a model, we describe here the first investigation of the antigenic relationships among different anelloviruses. Using a TTSuV genotype la (TTSuV1 a) or TTSuV1 b enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the respective putative ORF1 capsid antigen and TTSuV1-specific real-time PCR, the combined serological and virological profile of TTSuV1 infection in pigs was determined and compared with that of TTSuV2. TTSuV1 is likely not associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), because both the viral loads and antibody levels were not different between affected and unaffected pigs and because there was no synergistic effect of concurrent PCV2/TTSuV1 infections. We did observe a higher correlation of IgG antibody levels between anti-TTSuV1 a and -TTSuV1 b than between anti-TTSuV1 a or -1 b and anti-TTSuV2 antibodies in these sera, implying potential antigenic crossreactivity. To confirm this, rabbit antisera against the putative capsid proteins of TTSuV1 a, TTSuV1 b, or TTSuV2 were generated, and the antigenic relationships among these TTSuVs were analyzed by an ELISA and by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PK-15 cells transfected with one of the three TTSuV ORF1 constructs. The results demonstrate antigenic crossreactivity between the two genotypes TTSuV1 a and TTSuV1 b but not between the two species TTSuV1 a or -1 b and TTSuV2. Furthermore, an antigenogroup 1 human TN antiserum did not react with any of the three TTSuV antigens. These results have important implications for an understanding of the diversity of anelloviruses as well as for the classification and vaccine development of TTSuVs. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.
  • Author:
    Summerfield NJ; Boswood A; O'Grady MR; Gordon SG; Dukes-Mcevan J; Oyama MA; Smith S; Patteson M; French AT; Culshaw GJ; Braz-Ruivo L; Estrada A; O'Sullivan ML; Loureiro J; Willis R; Watson R
    Title:
    Efficacy of pimobean in the prevention of congestive heart failure or sudden death in doberman pinschers with preclinical dilated cardiomyopathy (The PROTECT Study).
    Source:
    J Vet Intern Med 26 (6), 1337-1349 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Background: The benefit of pimobendan in delaying the progression of preclinical dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Dobermans is not reported. Hypothesis: That chronic oral administration of pimobendan to Dobermans with preclinical DCM will delay the onset of CHF or sudden death and improve survival. Animals: Seventy-six client-owned Dobermans recruited at 10 centers in the UK and North America. Methods: The trial was a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group multicenter study. Dogs were allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive pimobendan (Vetmedin capsules) or visually identical placebo. The composite primary endpoint was prospectively defined as either onset of CHF or sudden death. Time to death from all causes was a secondary endpoint. Results: The proportion of dogs reaching the primary endpoint was not significantly different between groups (P = .1). The median time to the primary endpoint (onset of CHF or sudden death) was significantly longer in the pimobendan (718 days, IQR 441-1152 days) versus the placebo group (441 days, IQR 151-641 days) (log-rank P = 0.0088). The median survival time was significantly longer in the pimobendan (623 days, IQR 491-1531 days) versus the placebo group (466 days, IQR 236-710 days) (log-rank P = .034). Conclusion and Clinical Importance: The administration of pimobendan to Dobermans with preclinical DCM prolongs the time to the onset of clinical signs and extends survival. Treatment of dogs in the preclinical phase of this common cardiovascular disorder with pimobendan can lead to improved outcome. © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
  • Author:
    Gowan RA; Baral RM; Lingard AE; Catt MJ; Stansen W; Johnston L; Malik R
    Title:
    A retrospective analysis of the effects of meloxicam on the longevity of aged with and without overt chronic kidney disease.
    Source:
    J Feline Med Surg 14 (12), 876-881 (2012)
    Abstract:
    The study sought to examine the effect of long-term meloxicam treatment on the survival of cats with and without naturallyoccurring chronic kidney disease at the initiation of therapy. The databases of two feline-only clinics were searched for cats older than 7 years that had been treated continuously with meloxicam for a period of longer than 6 months. Only cats with complete medical records available for review were recruited into the study.The median longevity in the renal group was 18.6 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.5-19.2] and the non-renal group was 22 years [95% CI 18.5-23.8]. The median longevity after diagnosis of CKD was 1608 days [95% confidence interval 1344-1919] which compares favourably to previously published survival times of cats with CKD. In both groups the most common cause of death was neoplasia. Long-term treatment with oral meloxicam did not appear to reduce the lifespan of cats with pre-existent stable CKD, even for cats in IRIS stages II and 111. Therefore, to address the need for both quality of life and longevity in cats with chronic painful conditions, meloxicam should be considered as a part of the therapeutic regimen. ISFM and AAFP 2012.
  • Author:
    McLaughlin CL; Stanisiewski E; Lucas MJ; Cornel CP; Watkins J; Bryson L; Tena JKS; Hallberg J; Chenault JR
    Title:
    Evaluation of two doses of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension for treatment of metritis in lactating dairy cows.
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci 95 (8), 4363-4371 (2012)
    Abstract:
    The objectives of this study were to evaluate efficacy of a 2-dose regimen of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension (CCFA-SS) for treatment of acute metritis in lactating dairy cows under field conditions and to provide additional safety and injection site tolerance data for injections at the base of the ear. Cows at 15 dairies with rectal temperature =39.5°C and fetid uterine discharge =10 d postcalving were randomly assigned by blocks of 2, based on order of entry and without regard to parity, to treatment with saline (1.5. mL/45.5. kg of body weight, n = 509) or CCFA-SS (6.6. mg of ceftiofur equivalents/kg of body weight, n = 514). Treatments were administered by subcutaneous injection in the posterior aspect of the ear where it attaches to the head; the first dose was administered on study d 0 and the second dose was administered in the contra lateral ear on study d 3. Rectal temperatures were recorded on study d 1 to 4 and 5 or 6 and cows were clinically evaluated daily from study d 1 to 13. Cows that exhibited increased adverse clinical signs of poor health or complications associated with metritis were categorized as a treatment failure and administered escape therapy. Each cow received a veterinary physical examination on study d 5 or 6 to determine if she should be removed from the study and on study d 14 to determine clinical cure or failure to cure. Clinical cure was defined as rectal temperature <39.5°C and non-fetid and purulent or mucopurulent discharge on study d 14 and no escape therapy administered. The injection procedure was scored after each injection (study d 0 and 3) and injection sites and ear carriage were scored on study d 5 or 6, 14, and 57 ± 3. Of the 1,023 cows enrolled, 7 were completely censored due to protocol deviations and 34 were removed for protocol deviations or medical conditions not related to metritis. Clinical cure rate was higher for CCFA-SS than for saline (74.3 vs. 55.3%) and rectal temperatures for each of study d 1 to 5 or 6 were lower for CCFA-SS than saline. Injection procedure indices showed that CCFA-SS could be practically and safely administered using commercial dairy facilities. Although injection site scores were higher for CCFA-SS than saline at study d 5 or 6 and 14, =98.6% of ears were normal on d 57 ± 3. Thus, a 2-dose treatment with CCFA-SS given 72. h apart increased metritis clinical cure rate and was well tolerated in dairy cows.
  • Author:
    Ingwersen W; Fox R; Cunningham G; Winhall M
    Title:
    Efficacy and safety of 3 versus 5 days of meloxicam as an analgesic for feline onychectomy and sterilization.
    Source:
    Can Vet J 53 (3), 257-264 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Three- or 5-day courses of meloxicam [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW) subcutaneously pre- or postoperatively on Day 1 followed by 0.05 mg/kg BW, PO per day thereafter] were assessed for analgesic efficacy and safety in 50 client-owned cats undergoing onychectomy and sterilization. Primary outcome parameters were analgesia score, gait/lameness score, and need for rescue analgesia assessed at times 0, 1,4, 7, 24, 28, 35, 48, 52, 57 hours and on Day 5. Packed cell volume/total solids and serum biochemistry were assessed at time 0 and Days 3 and 5. There were no differences in efficacy and safety parameters regardless of the treatment protocol employed and no cat required rescue analgesia. The patients that received meloxicam preoperatively had statistically better gait/lameness scores than those that received meloxicam postoperatively, supporting the principle of preemptive analgesia.
  • Author:
    Goodell G M; Campbell J; Joejvang-Nielsen L; Stansen W; Constable P D
    Title:
    An alkalinizing oral rehydration solution containing lecithin-coated citrus fiber is superior to a nonalkalinizing solution in treating 360 calves with naturally acquired diarrhea
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci 95 (11), 6677-6686 (2012)
    Abstract:
    The aim of this field study was to compare the efficacy and cost of 2 commercially available oral rehydration therapy (ORT) solutions in treating dairy calves with naturally acquired diarrhea. A total of 1,349 newborn Holstein-Friesian calves were prospectively enrolled in the study. Calves were housed in individual hutches and fed a mixture of pasteurized hospital milk and an all-milk protein milk replacer twice per day. Calves were monitored twice each day from d 2 of life until 30. d of age for the presence or absence of diarrhea, and were assigned a fecal score and a hydration score at each examination. Calves that developed mild to severe diarrhea that did not need intravenous fluids and did not have clinical evidence of concurrent disease (n = 360) were assigned randomly to receive 1 of 2 commercial ORT solutions: a hypertonic alkalinizing ORT containing lecithin-coated citrus fibers (Diaque, group D, n = 180; Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany), and an isotonic nonalkalinizing ORT (RE-SORB, group R, n = 180; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY) for 2 to 8. d; the duration of treatment depended on whether diarrhea was still present. No significant differences were observed in mortality rates or treatment failure rates between the 2 treatment groups. Fecal consistency returned to normal more quickly in group D calves than in group R calves; consequently, group D calves were treated for 1. d less than were group R calves. The increase in body weight after 4. d of treatment was larger in group D than in group R. The average daily gain from birth to weaning in calves that did not develop concurrent disease (such as pneumonia) during the study period tended to be higher in group D calves (0.53 ± 0.11. kg/d) than in group R calves (0.51 ± 0.09. kg/d). The smaller number of treatments at a lower cost per treatment produced a cost advantage of $4.82 per treated calf in group D calves compared with group R calves. Our findings support the concept that milk should continue to be fed to diarrheic calves that are being administered an ORT solution in order to maintain growth. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.
  • Author:
    Hoenig M; Pach N; Thomaseth K; De Vries F; Ferguson DC
    Title:
    Evaluation of long-term glucose homeostasis in lean and obese cats by use of continuous glucose monitoring.
    Source:
    Am J Vet Res 73 (7), 1100-1106 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Objective-To evaluate intraday and interday variations in glucose concentrations in cats and to test the utility of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). Animals-6 lean and 8 long-term (> 5 years) obese cats. Procedures-Blood glucose concentrations were measured during the course of 156 hours by use of a laboratory hexokinase-based reference method and a handheld glucometer. Interstitial glucose concentrations were evaluated with a CGMS. Results-Paired measures of glucose concentrations obtained with the CGMS typically were marginally higher than concentrations for the reference method and less biased than concentrations obtained with the glucometer. This was partially confirmed by the concordance correlation coefficients of the concentration for the CGMS or glucometer versus the concentration for the reference method, although the correlation coefficients were not significantly different. Mean ± SD area under the curve for the glucose concentration (AUCG) did not differ significantly between lean (14.0 ± 0.5 g/dL•h) and obese (15.2 + 0.5 g/dL•h) cats during the 156-hour period, but one of the obese cats had a much higher AUCG. Within-day glucose variability was small in both lean and obese cats. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Glucose homeostasis was maintained, even in long-term obese cats, and intraday glucose fluctuations were small. One obese cat might have been classified as prediabetic on the basis of the AUCG, which was approximately 25% higher than that of the other obese and lean cats. The CGMS can be useful in the evaluation of long-term effects of drugs or diet on glucose homeostasis in cats.
  • Author:
    Rinehart CL; Jolie RA; Zimmerman AD; Buterbaugh RE; Chase CCL
    Title:
    The authors respond.
    Source:
    Am J Vet Res 73 (7), 929 (2012)
  • Author:
    Clark M; Thomaseth K; Heit M; Hoenig M
    Title:
    Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of protamine zinc recombinant human insulin in healthy dogs.
    Source:
    J Vet Pharmacol Ther 35 (4), 342-350 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Protamine zinc insulins are generally considered to be long acting, with slow absorption from subcutaneous tissue. Protamine zinc recombinant human insulin (PZIR) may be useful to treat diabetic dogs. The purpose of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PZIR in dogs. PZIR was administered subcutaneously to 10 healthy Beagles using an incomplete crossover design, at doses of 0.3 or 0.5U/kg (each n=5), 0.8U/kg (n=10), or 0.8U/kg at three separate sites (n=6). Insulin and glucose concentrations were measured over 24h. The shapes of insulin and glucose curves were variable among dogs, and the relationship between insulin dose, concentration, and glucose-lowering effect was nonlinear. For single-site 0.8U/kg, median (range) onset of action was 3.5h (0.5-10h), time to glucose nadir was 14h (5 to >24h), and duration of action was >24h (16 to >24h). Mathematical model predictions of times to 50% and 90% insulin absorption, and fraction of insulin absorbed in 24h, were not significantly different among protocols. Results confirm the tendency toward a late onset and long duration of action for PZIR in dogs. This insulin may be an alternative treatment option for diabetic dogs.
  • Author:
    Silley P; Goby L; Pillar CM
    Title:
    Susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci to a kanamycin and cefalexin combination.
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci 95 (6), 3448-3453 (2012)
    Abstract:
    A combination of kanamycin and cefalexin was licensed in Europe in 2008 to treat bovine clinical mastitis. Preliminary broth and disk clinical breakpoints for this antibiotic combination have been proposed for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli. This study indicates that these proposed breakpoints also hold for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), a group of bacteria frequently isolated in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis. The data show that clinical bovine mastitis isolates of CNS from Europe have a high degree of susceptibility to the kanamycin/cefalexin combination, with minimal resistance to either agent alone. The use of the available kanamycin and cefalexin combination disk for testing the susceptibility of bovine mastitis isolates of Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli is also reliable for use in the testing of CNS, as disk results correlated with broth minimum inhibitory concentrations. The study reports, for the first time, the approved Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute quality control ranges for the kanamycin/cefalexin combination and wild-type cutoff values for major bacterial pathogens implicated in bovine mastitis.
  • Author:
    Cernicchiaro N; White BJ; Renter DG; Babcock AH; Kelly L; Slattery R
    Title:
    Effects of body weight loss during transit from sale barns to commercial feedlots on health and performance in feeder cattle cohorts arriving to feedlots from 2000 to 2008.
    Source:
    J Anim Sci 90 (6), 1940-1947 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Body weight loss during transport or shrink (SHK) is a common occurrence in feeder cattle that results from a physiological, complex process. Previous studies have assessed the effects of environmental and dietary stressors on transport-associated BW loss; however, data on associations between shrink and subsequent health and performance parameters in feeder cattle are limited. Operational data from 13 U.S. commercial feedlots (n = 16,590 cattle cohorts) were used to quantify how SHK was associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity and overall mortality risks, HCW and ADG in feeder cattle cohorts arriving to feedlots during 2000 to 2008. Multivariable mixed-effects negative binomial and linear regression models were employed to determine these associations while accounting for other cohort-level demographic variables. The median SHK among the study cohorts was 3.0% with a mean (± SEM) of 2.4 ± 0.02%. The mean (± SEM) cumulative BRD morbidity was 10.0% ± 0.09% (median = 5.8%; range 0 to 100%) and the mean (± SEM) overall cumulative mortality was 1.3% ± 0.01% (median = 0.9%; range: 0 to 25.6%). The mean and median number of days on feed of cohorts experiencing initial BRD cases was 143 and 150 d (range = 23 to 288 d). The effects of SHK were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with BRD morbidity, overall mortality, HCW and ADG, and these effects were significantly (P < 0.05) modified by gender, season and mean arrival BW of the cohort. Combining data on BW loss during transport with cohort demographics could allow a more precise prediction of health and performance of feedlot cattle. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Reaxys Database Information
  • Author:
    Johston L; Narbe R
    Title:
    Preferential accumulation of meloxicam in inflamed synovial joints in dogs
    Source:
    Kleintierpraxis 57 (9), 475-476 (2012)
    Abstract:
    -
  • Author:
    Oetzel G R; Miller B E
    Title:
    Effect of oral calcium bolus supplementation on early-lactation health and milk yield in commercial dairy herds
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci 95 (12), 7051-7065 (2012)
    Abstract:
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with oral Ca boluses after calving on early-lactation health and milk yield. Cows in their second lactation or greater (n = 927) from 2 large dairies in Wisconsin were enrolled during the summer of 2010. Both herds were fed supplemental anions during the prefresh period and less than 1% of fresh cows were treated for clinical milk fever. Cows were scored before calving for lameness and body condition, and then randomly assigned to either a control group or an oral Ca bolus-supplemented group. Control cows received no oral Ca boluses around calving. Cows in the oral Ca bolus group received 2 oral Ca boluses (Bovikalc, Boehringer Ingelheim, St. Joseph, MO), one bolus 0 to 2 h after calving and the second 8 to 35 h after calving. The oral Ca bolus administration schedule allowed fresh cows to be restrained in headlocks only once daily. Whole-blood samples were collected immediately before the second oral Ca bolus was given and were analyzed for ionized Ca (Ca 2+) concentration. Early-lactation health events were recorded and summed for each cow. Only 6 cases (0.6% of calvings) of clinical milk fever occurred during the trial, and only 14% of cows tested were hypocalcemic (Ca 2+ less than 1.0 mmol/L) at 8 to 35 h after calving. Mean Ca 2+ concentrations were not different between the control and oral Ca bolus-supplemented groups. Blood samples from the cows given oral Ca boluses were collected an average of 20.6 h after administration of the first bolus. Subpopulations of cows with significant responses to oral Ca bolus supplementation were identified based on significant interactions between oral Ca bolus supplementation and covariates in mixed multiple regression models. Lame cows supplemented with oral Ca boluses averaged 0.34 fewer health events in the first 30 d in milk compared with lame cows that were not supplemented with oral Ca boluses. Cows with a higher previous lactation mature-equivalent milk production (greater than 105% of herd rank) and supplemented with oral Ca boluses produced 2.9 kg more milk at their first test after calving compared with cows with higher previous lactation milk yields that were not supplemented. Results of this study indicate that lame cows and higher producing cows responded favorably to supplementation with oral Ca boluses. Supplementing targeted subpopulations of cows with oral Ca boluses was beneficial even for dairies with a very low incidence of hypocalcemia. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.
  • Author:
    Francis AJ; Johnson MJS; Culshaw GC; Corcoran BM; Martin MWS; French AT
    Title:
    Reply
    Source:
    J Small Anim Pract 53 (5), 306-309 (2012)
  • Author:
    Rinehart CL; Zimmerman AD; Buterbaugh RE; Jolie RA; Chase CCL
    Title:
    Efficacy of vaccination of cattle with the leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajinto component of a pentavalent leptospira bacterin against experimental challenge with leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis.
    Source:
    Am J Vet Res 73 (5), 735-740 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Objective-To evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with the Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno component of a pentavalent Leptospira bacterin against a virulent experimental challenge with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203 in cattle. Animals-Fifty-five 6-month-old Holstein heifers. Procedures-Heifers that were negative for persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus determined via immunohistochemical testing and negative for Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona, Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, Leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa, Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola, and Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae determined via microscopic agglutination assay were enrolled in the study. Two heifers were separated and used for the challenge passage. The remaining heifers were vaccinated twice with a commercial pentavalent bacterin or a sham vaccine 21 days apart and subsequently challenged with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203. Urinary shedding, antibody titers, and clinical signs of leptospirosis infection were recorded for 8 weeks after challenge. Results-Heifers that received the pentavalent bacterin did not shed the organism in urine after challenge and did not have renal colonization at necropsy. Heifers that were sham vaccinated shed the organism in urine and had renal colonization. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results provided evidence that a pentavalent Leptospira vaccine containing L interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno can provide protection against challenge with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203. It is important to demonstrate cross-protection that is vaccine specific against disease-causing strains of organisms that are prevalent under field conditions.
  • Author:
    Goodell G M; Campbell J; Hoejvang-Nielsen L
    Title:
    An alkalinizing oral rehydration solution containing lecithin-coated citrus fiber is superior to a nonalkalinizing solution in treating 360 calves with naturally acquired diarrhea
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci Article in Press (2012)
    Abstract:
    The aim of this field study was to compare the efficacy and cost of 2 commercially available oral rehydration therapy (ORT) solutions in treating dairy calves with naturally acquired diarrhea. A total of 1,349 newborn Holstein-Friesian calves were prospectively enrolled in the study. Calves were housed in individual hutches and fed a mixture of pasteurized hospital milk and an all-milk protein milk replacer twice per day. Calves were monitored twice each day from d 2 of life until 30 d of age for the presence or absence of diarrhea, and were assigned a fecal score and a hydration score at each examination. Calves that developed mild to severe diarrhea that did not need intravenous fluids and did not have clinical evidence of concurrent disease (n = 360) were assigned randomly to receive 1 of 2 commercial ORT solutions: a hypertonic alkalinizing ORT containing lecithin-coated citrus fibers (Diaque, group D, n = 180; Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany), and an isotonic nonalkalinizing ORT (RE-SORB, group R, n = 180; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY) for 2 to 8 d; the duration of treatment depended on whether diarrhea was still present. No significant differences were observed in mortality rates or treatment failure rates between the 2 treatment groups. Fecal consistency returned to normal more quickly in group D calves than in group R calves; consequently, group D calves were treated for 1 d less than were group R calves. The increase in body weight after 4 d of treatment was larger in group D than in group R. The average daily gain from birth to weaning in calves that did not develop concurrent disease (such as pneumonia) during the study period tended to be higher in group D calves (0.53 ± 0.11 kg/d) than in group R calves (0.51 ± 0.09 kg/d). The smaller number of treatments at a lower cost per treatment produced a cost advantage of $4.82 per treated calf in group D calves compared with group R calves. Our findings support the concept that milk should continue to be fed to diarrheic calves that are being administered an ORT solution in order to maintain growth. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.
  • Author:
    Baker S R; Mondaca E; Poison D; Dee SA
    Title:
    Evaluation of a needle-free injection device to prevent hematogenous transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
    Source:
    J Swine Health Prod 20 (3), 123-128 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the ability of a needle-free injection device (NFID) to prevent hematogenous transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Materials and methods: Eighty-eight 5-week-old gilts from a PRRSV-negative source were organized into five groups and individually housed by group in isolation rooms (four replicate trials, 22 pigs per trial). On Day 0, pigs in Group 1 (PRRSV source population) were inoculated with PRRSV isolate MN-184, and pigs in Group 4 (shaminoculated group) were inoculated with virus-free medium. On Days 4, 5, and 6 post inoculation, each pig in Groups 1, 2, and 3 was vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin using the needle-syringe and the NFID. First, a needle-syringe and NFID were both used to vaccinate pigs in Group 1, and then the same needle-syringe and NFID were used to vaccinate pigs in Group 2 (needle-syringe) and Group 3 (NFID), respectively. Results: On Day 11, all pigs in Group 2 tested positive for PRRSV RNA, suggesting that transmission of PRRSV had occurred between Groups 1 and 2 by repeated use of the same needle. On Day 21, all pigs in one replicate of Group 3 tested positive for PRRSV RNA, suggesting that transmission of PRRSV had occurred between Groups 1 and 3 by repeated use of the same NFID. Implications: Under the conditions of this study, hematogenous transmission of PRRSV can occur from infected pigs to susceptible pigs via repeated use of the same needle, and use of NFIDs does not prevent hematogenous transmission of PRRSV.
  • Author:
    Dee S; Cano J P; Spronk G; Reicks D; Ruen P; Pitkin A; Polson D
    Title:
    Evaluation of the long-term effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in large breeding herds in swine-dense regions.
    Source:
    Viruses 4 (5), 654-662 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a risk factor for the infection of susceptible populations. Therefore, a long-term sustainability study of air filtration as a means to reduce this risk was conducted. Participating herds (n = 38) were organized into 4 independent cohorts and the effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections was analyzed at 3 different levels from September 2008 to January 2012 including the likelihood of infection in contemporary filtered and non-filtered herds, the likelihood of infection before and after implementation of filtration and the time to failure in filtered and non-filtered herds. Results indicated that new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds were significantly lower than in contemporary non-filtered control herds (P < 0.01), the odds for a new PRRSV infection in breeding herds before filtration was 7.97 times higher than the odds after filtration was initiated (P < 0.01) and the median time to new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds of 30 months was significantly longer than the 11 months observed in non-filtered herds (P < 0.01). In conclusion, across all 3 levels of analysis, the long-term effect of air filtration on reducing the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in the study population was demonstrated. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Author:
    Kukushkin S; Okovytaya T
    Title:
    Seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and PCV2 in commercial pig farms in Russia ( Short Survey )
    Source:
    Vet Rec 171 (5), 126 (2012)
    Abstract:
    no abstract available
  • Author:
    Daniel Givens D; Marley M S D; Jones C A; Ensley D T; Galik P K; Zhang Y; Riddell K P; Joiner K S; Brodersen B W; Rodning S P
    Title:
    Protective effects against abortion and fetal infection following exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 during pregnancy in beef heifers that received two doses of a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine prior to breeding
    Source:
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 241 (4), 484-495 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Objective-To determine whether administration of 2 doses of a multivalent, modified-live virus vaccine prior to breeding of heifers would provide protection against abortion and fetal infection following exposure of pregnant heifers to cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and cattle with acute bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) infection. Design-Randomized controlled clinical trial. Animals-33 crossbred beef heifers, 3 steers, 6 bulls, and 25 calves. Procedures-20 of 22 vaccinated and 10 of 11 unvaccinated heifers became pregnant and were commingled with 3 steers PI with BVDV type 1a, 1b, or 2 for 56 days beginning 102 days after the second vaccination (administered 30 days after the first vaccination). Eighty days following removal of BVDV-PI steers, heifers were commingled with 3 bulls with acute BHV1 infection for 14 days. Results-After BVDV exposure, 1 fetus (not evaluated) was aborted by a vaccinated heifer; BVDV was detected in 0 of 19 calves from vaccinated heifers and in all 4 fetuses (aborted after BHV1 exposure) and 6 calves from unvaccinated heifers. Bovine herpesvirus 1 was not detected in any fetus or calf and associated fetal membranes in either treatment group. Vaccinated heifers had longer gestation periods and calves with greater birth weights, weaning weights, average daily gains, and market value at weaning, compared with those for calves born to unvaccinated heifers. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Prebreeding administration of a modified-live virus vaccine to heifers resulted in fewer abortions and BVDV-PI offspring and improved growth and increased market value of weaned calves.
  • Author:
    Goutalier J; Combeau S; Quillon JP; Goby L
    Title:
    Distribution of cefalexin and kanamycin in the mammary tissue following intramammary administration in lactating cow.
    Source:
    J Vet Pharmacol Ther 36 (1), 95-98 (2013)
  • Author:
    Ferris NP; Clavijo A; Yang M; Velazquez-Salinas L; Nordengrahn A; Hutchings GH; Kristersson T; Merza M
    Title:
    Development and laboratory evaluation of two lateral flow devices for the detection of vesicular stromatitis virus in clinical samples.
    Source:
    J Virol Methods 180 (1-2), 96-100 (2012)
  • Author:
    Mainau E; Ruiz-De-La-Torre JL; Dalmau A; Salleras JM; Manteca X
    Title:
    Effect of meloxicam (Metacam) on post-farrowing sow behaviour and piglet performance.
    Source:
    Animal 6 (3), 494-501 (2012)
  • Author:
    Scott-Moncrieff JCR; Moore GE; Coe J; Lynn RC; Gwin W; Petzold R
    Title:
    Characteristics of commercally manufactured and compounded protamine zinc insulin.
    Source:
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 240 (5), 600-605 (2012)
  • Author:
    Johnston L; Narbe R
    Title:
    Preferential accumulation of meloxicam in inflamed synovial joints of dogs.
    Source:
    Vet Rec 170 (8), 207a (2012)
  • Author:
    White BJ; Anderson DE; Renter DG; Larson RL; Mosier DA; Kelly LL; Theurer ME; Robert BD; Walz ML
    Title:
    Clinical behavioral and pulmonary changes in calves following inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis.
    Source:
    Am J Vet Res 73 (4), 490-497 (2012)
  • Author:
    Lynne AM; Kariyaewasam S; Wannemuehler Y; Johnson TJ; Johnson SJ; Sinha AS; Lynne DK; Moon HW; Jordan DM; Logue CM; Foley SL; Nolan LK
    Title:
    Recombinant iss as a potential vaccine for avian colibacillosis.
    Source:
    Avian Dis 56 (1), 192-199 (2012)
  • Author:
    Ebner T; Schaenzle G; Weber W; Sent U; Elliott J
    Title:
    In vitro glucuronidation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan in the cat: A comparison with other species.
    Source:
    J Vet Pharmacol Ther Article in Press (2012)
  • Author:
    Doomenbal E; Ingwersen W; Cloutier G
    Title:
    Feline leukemia and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada - A comment
    Source:
    Can Vet J 53 (1), 9-10 (2012)
  • Author:
    Mainau E; Ruiz-de-la-Torre JL; Dalmau A; Salleras JM; Manteca X
    Title:
    Effects of meloxicam (Metacam) on post-farrowing sow behaviour and piglet performance.
    Source:
    Animal 6 (3), 494-501 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Farrowing is an intrinsically risky process for both the sow and the piglets that can cause welfare and economic problems. The effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam on post-farrowing behaviour of sows, and the performance of piglets were investigated. A total of 48 sows were randomly allocated at the day of farrowing (day 0) into two homogeneous groups regarding parity, and treated with either meloxicam or saline solution as placebo. For each sow, number of position changes, total time lying and standing or sitting, feed intake and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded during 3 days after farrowing. Piglets were individually weighed at farrowing and at weaning. The number of position changes did not show significant differences between treatments (P = 0.79). Sows spent significantly less time lying during day +3 after farrowing in the meloxicam group than in the placebo group (P = 0.04). Feed intake and RT showed a parity effect (P < 0.001 in both cases); however, no treatment effect was observed (P = 0.67 and P = 0.47, respectively). Pre-weaning mortality rate in piglets was not affected by treatment. In litters from multiparous sows, piglets of low birth weight (defined as percentile 15: BW <1180 g) had an average daily gain significantly higher in the meloxicam group than in the placebo group (196.6 ± 7.2 v. 166.6 ± 9.1 g/day; P = 0.03). Although the administration of meloxicam 90 min after farrowing showed a positive effect on the total time lying of the sows, additional investigations are required to better qualify relevant indicators of pain following farrowing in sows and to specify the analgesic effects of meloxicam on piglet performance.
  • Author:
    Linhares DCL; Cano JP; Wetzell T; Nerem J; Toremorell M; Dee SA
    Title:
    Effect of modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRERSv) vaccine on the shedding of wildtype virus from an infected population of growing pigs.
    Source:
    Vaccine 30 (2), 407-413 (2012)
    Abstract:
    There are ongoing efforts to eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) from regions in the United States swine industry. However, an important challenge for the accomplishment of those efforts is the re-infection of pig units due to the area spread of PRRSv. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRRS modified-live virus vaccine (MLV) on viral shedding and on dynamics of PRRSv infection in pig populations raised under commercial conditions. The study composed of two rooms of 1000 pigs each. Ten percent of pigs of each room were inoculated with a field isolate of PRRSv. Rooms had separate air spaces and strict scientifically validated biosecurity protocols were adopted to avoid movement of pathogens between rooms. At 8 and 36. dpi (days post inoculation), all pigs of the challenge-vaccine group were inoculated with a MLV vaccine. Pigs of the challenge-control group were placebo-inoculated. Blood and oral fluid samples were collected from each room at 0, 8, 36, 70, 96 and 118. dpi for PRRSv RNA detection using PCR. PRRSv-antibodies were also screened from blood serum samples with a commercially available ELISA test. Additionally, tonsil scraping samples were collected from both groups at 70, 96 and 118. dpi. Moreover, air samples were collected 6 times per week from 0 to 118. dpi and were tested for PRRSv RNA using qPCR assay. There was no difference in the PRRSv infection dynamics measured as duration and magnitude of viremia and seroconversion. Also, there was no difference in the frequency of tonsil scraping samples PRRSv-positive by PCR. However, the challenge-vaccine group had significantly less PRRSv shed compared to the challenge-control group. The challenge-vaccine group had significant less PRRSv-positive oral fluids at 36. dpi. Moreover, the challenge-vaccine group had significant reduction in the cumulative PRRSv shed in the air.
  • Author:
    Zois NE; Moesgaard SG; Kjelgaard-Hansen M; Rasmussen CE; Falk T; Fossing C; Haeggstroem J; Pedersen HD; Olsen LH
    Title:
    Circulating cytokine concentrations in dogs with different degrees of myxomatous mitral valve disease.
    Source:
    Vet J (Lond) 192 (1), 106-111 (2012)
    Abstract:
    Cytokines have been associated with the progression of congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans and may be implicated in the pathophysiology of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the serum concentrations of cytokines in dogs with MMVD. The study included 16 Cairn terriers with no or minimal mitral regurgitation (MR), 41 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with different degrees of MR and 11 dogs of different breeds with CHF due to MMVD. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, interferon-?-induced protein and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. CHF dogs had significantly higher MCP-1 concentrations than dogs with no or minimal MR. Among the CKCS, IL-2 and IL-7 decreased with increasing left atrial size and IL-7 also decreased with increasing MR. IL-8 decreased with increasing left ventricular end-systolic internal dimensions. MCP-1 was increased in CHF dogs compared to healthy control dogs and IL-2, IL-7 and IL-8 decreased with increasing indices of disease severity. The results suggest a role for these cytokines in canine MMVD and CHF.