Value through Innovation22 May 2015

Scientific Publications

Boehringer Ingelheim offers an overview of scientific publications on the following pages. This overview represents all publications of the last three years (YTD) where employees of Boehringer Ingelheim worldwide were involved.

47 publications regarding Veterinary Medicine
  • Author:
    Smith GW; Smith F; Zuidhof S; Foster DM
    Title:
    Short communication: Characterization of the serologic response induced by vaccination of late-gestation cows with a Salmonella Dublin vaccine
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci Article in Press (2015)
    Abstract:
    Diarrhea due to Salmonella infection is an important cause of neonatal calf diarrhea. The acquisition of passive immunity in the calf by vaccinating the dam has shown some success in previous studies; however, no data exists on the use of currently licensed vaccines in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether vaccinating cows in late gestation with a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine would stimulate Salmonella-specific antibodies in the colostrum of cows at calving and whether these antibodies would be transferred to the calf. Thirty Holstein cows were vaccinated 3 wk before the end of lactation with a Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin vaccine, with a second dose given at dry-off. An additional 30 cows received only saline. Calves had a blood sample collected immediately after birth and were then fed fresh colostrum from their dam within 2 h of calving. A postcolostrum blood sample was collected 24 to 48 h later. Salmonella Dublin antibodies in colostrum as well as serum from the cows and calves were measured using an ELISA technique. Results of this study showed that vaccinated cattle had elevated Salmonella Dublin antibody titers at the time of calving (40.3 ± 9.1) as compared with control cows (-9.4 ± 1.1). Calves that received colostrum from vaccinated cattle also had a significant increase in Salmonella Dublin antibodies (88.5 ± 8.9) as compared with calves born to unvaccinated cows (-3.2 ± 1.2). This study demonstrated that the use of a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine can stimulate antibodies that are passed on to the calf via colostral transfer. Further studies need to be done to determine whether these antibodies will offer protection against Salmonella challenge.
  • Author:
    Newby NC; Renaud D; Tremblay R; Duffield TF
    Title:
    Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk
    Source:
    Can Vet J 55 (12), 1196-1199 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Meloxicam can be used on the day of calving in lactating cows without increasing the risk of retained fetal membranes.
  • Author:
    Saddoris-Clemons KL
    Title:
    Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Breaking the mold -formulating monogastric diets without traditional ingredients
    Source:
    J Anim Sci 92 (4), 1291-1292 (2014)
  • Author:
    Ambrose DJ; Gobikrushanth M; Zuidhof S; Kastelic JPJ
    Title:
    Low-dose natural prostaglandin F2. (dinoprost) at timed insemination improves conception rate in dairy cattle
    Source:
    Theriogenology 83 (4), 529-534 (2015)
    Abstract:
    The primary objective was to determine if low doses of PGF2. (dinoprost) given intramuscularly (im) concurrent with timed artificial insemination (TAI) would improve conception rates in dairy cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if body condition score (BCS) and parity would influence conception rates, either independently or in interaction with PGF2. treatment. In experiment I, 307 lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either 5-mg PGF2. im (PGF2. treated, n=154) or 0-mg PGF2. (control, n=153) at TAI (Day 0). Blood samples were obtained on Days -10, -3, 0, and 7 to determine plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. Pregnancy was confirmed 30 to 32days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment II, 451 cows were randomly assigned to receive either 10-mg PGF2. im (PGF2. treated, n=226) or 0-mg PGF2. (control, n=225) at TAI, and pregnancy was confirmed 45 to 50days after TAI by palpation per rectum. Pregnancy data were analyzed by CATMOD (SAS). In experiment I, PGF2. treatment, BCS, and parity did not affect conception rate (35.7% vs. 37.0% for PGF2. treated vs. control; P>0.05). However, in experiment II, conception rates were higher in cows given 10-mg PGF2. than those in control cows (45.8% vs. 36.0%; P<0.05), in cows with high BCS than in cows with low BCS (52.1% vs. 30.4%; P<0.01), and in primiparous than in multiparous cows (47.6% vs. 34.4%; P<0.01), but their interaction with PGF2. treatment did not affect conception rates. In summary, 5mg of PGF2. given im concurrent with TAI failed to enhance conception rate in lactating dairy cows, whereas 10mg of PGF2. significantly increased conception rate.
  • Author:
    Mair KH; Koinig H; Gerner W; Höhne A; Bretthauer J; Kroll JJ; Roof MB; Saalmüller A; Stadler K; Libanova R
    Title:
    Carbopol improves the early cellular immune responses induced by the modified-life vaccine Ingelvac PRRS® MLV
    Source:
    Vet Microbiol Article in Press (2015)
    Abstract:
    Adjuvants enhance both the magnitude and duration of immune responses, therefore representing a central component of vaccines. The nature of the adjuvant can determine the particular type of immune response, which may be skewed toward cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, antibody responses, or particular classes of T helper (Th) responses and antibody isotypes. Traditionally, adjuvants have been added to intrinsically poor immunogenic vaccines, such as those using whole killed organisms or subunit vaccines. Here, we have compared cellular immune responses induced by the immunogenic modified life-attenuated vaccine Ingelvac PRRS® MLV when administered alone or in combination with carbopol, a widely used adjuvant in veterinary medicine. Using functional readouts (IFN-. ELISpot and cell proliferation) and analyzing phenotypical hallmarks of CD4T cell differentiation, we show that carbopol improves cellular immunity by inducing early IFN-.-producing cells and by preferentially driving T cell differentiation to effector phenotypes. Our data suggest that adjuvants may enhance and modulate life-attenuated - not only subunit/inactivated - vaccines.
  • Author:
    Schulz K; Frahm J; Kersten S; Meyer U; Reiche D; Sauerwein H; Dänicke S
    Title:
    Effects of elevated parameters of subclinical ketosis on the immune system of dairy cows: in vivo and in vitro results
    Source:
    Arch Anim Nutr, 15 Article in Press (2015)
    Abstract:
    Using an established model in which subclinical ketosis is induced, the response of differential blood counts and levels of various haematological variables, including the inflammatory marker haptoglobin (Hp), were tested over the last six weeks of parturition until the 56th day post-partum in cows with lower or higher body condition scores (LBC and HBC, respectively; n = 9/group). Animals in the HBC group evidenced subclinical ketosis whereas LBC animals were metabolically healthy. For in vitro examination with ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as a further stimulus, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) counts of cows with and without subclinical ketosis (n = 5/group) were observed. Counts of leucocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes (LY) peaked at day 1 post-partum in HBC cows, with a more marked increase in heifers. In subclinical ketosis LY count increased again, with significantly higher values in the HBC group. The red blood cell (RBC) profile was affected by parity (counts were higher in heifers). Hp showed a positive linear correlation with BHB and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA; R2 = 0.41). PBMC from cows that were not pre-stressed with subclinical ketosis were more sensitive to increasing levels of BHB in vitro, as evidenced by both their higher proliferative capability and increased release of nitric oxide (NO). In summary, cows with subclinical ketosis showed a heightened immune response compared with metabolically healthy individuals, based on increased LY counts, increasing stimulative properties of PBMC and a relationship between Hp and typically increased values of BHB and NEFA. Concentrations of BHB in vivo during subclinical ketosis did not alter the proliferative capability of bovine PBMC in vitro, which was first significantly decreased at a dosage of 5 mM BHB.
  • Author:
    Walz PH; Edmondson MA; Riddell KP; Braden TD; Gard JA; Bayne J; Joiner KS; Galik PK; Zuidhof S; Givens MD
    Title:
    Effect of vaccination with a multivalent modified-live viral vaccine on reproductive performance in synchronized beef heifers
    Source:
    Theriogenology Article in Press (2014)
    Abstract:
    Prebreeding vaccination should provide fetal and abortive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) but not impede reproduction when administered to cattle before estrus synchronization and breeding. The objective was to assess reproductive performance when naive beef heifers were vaccinated with modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine 2days after unsynchronized estrus, and then revaccinated with MLV vaccine at 10 or 31days before synchronized natural breeding. Sixty beef heifers naive to BVDV and BoHV-1 were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Groups A and B (n=20 per group) were vaccinated with MLV vaccine containing BVDV and BoHV-1 at 2days after initial detected estrus, and then revaccinated 30days later, which corresponded to 10days (group A) or 31days (group B) before synchronized natural breeding. Groups C and D (n=10 per group) served as controls and were vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine that did not contain BVDV or BoHV-1 at the same time points as groups A and B, respectively. Estrous behavior was assessed using radio frequency technology. Estrus synchronization was performed, with initiation occurring at revaccination (groups A and C) or 21days after revaccination (groups B and D). After synchronization, heifers were submitted to a bull breeding pasture for 45days. At the end of the breeding period, heifers were assessed for pregnancy using ultrasonography. Progesterone concentrations were evaluated at estrus and 10days after unsynchronized and synchronized estrus, at initial pregnancy check, and at the end of the study. All pregnant heifers in groups A and B and five pregnant heifers in group C were euthanized between 44 and 62days of gestation and ovarian and conceptus tissues were assayed for BVDV and BoHV-1. Vaccination with MLV vaccine did not result in significant negative reproductive impact based on the duration of interestrus intervals, proportion of heifers exhibiting estrus within 5days after synchronization, serum progesterone concentrations, pregnancy rates, and pregnancies in the first 5days of the breeding season. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and BoHV-1 were not detected in luteal tissue, ovarian tissue, or fetal tissues. Use of MLV vaccine did not impede reproduction, when revaccination was performed at 10 or 31days before synchronized natural breeding.
  • Author:
    Ek-Mex JE; Segura-Correa JC; Alzina-López A; Batista-Garcia L
    Title:
    Lifetime and per year productivity of sows in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico
    Source:
    Trop Anim Health Prod 7 Article in Press (2014)
    Abstract:
    The objectives of this study were to estimate the lifetime and per year productivity of sows and to determine the effect of some factor on those traits in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico. Data from 7526 sows for lifetime number of piglets born alive per sow (LBA), lifetime kilograms of piglets at farrowing (LKF), number of piglets born alive per year (NPF/Y), and kilograms of piglets at farrowing per year (KPF/Y); and data from 7230 sows for lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime kilograms of piglets weaned (LKW), number of piglets weaned per year (NPW/Y), and kilograms of piglets weaned per year (KPW/Y) per sow were used. The statistical model for all traits included the fixed effects of farm, year of first farrowing, season of first farrowing, litter size at first farrowing, age at first farrowing, removal reason, simple interactions, and the error term. The means for LBA, LKF, NPF/Y, and KPF/Y were 45.1 piglets, 67.1 kg, 22.7 piglets, and 33.7 kg, respectively. The means for LPW, LKW, NPW/Y, and KPW/Y were 43.2 piglets, 251.9 kg, 21.5 piglets, and 125.1 kg, respectively. All factors were significant for all traits, except for age at first farrowing on LPW and LKW. Sows with large litter sizes and those that farrowed the first time, at an early age, had the highest lifetime and per year productivity. Therefore, more care and better management should be provided to those types of sows to improve the farms profit.
  • Author:
    Tipold A; Keefe TJ; Löscher W; Rundfeldt C; de Vries F
    Title:
    Clinical efficacy and safety of imepitoin in comparison with phenobarbital for the control of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs
    Source:
    J Vet Pharmacol Ther Article in Press (2014)
    Abstract:
    The anticonvulsant activity and safety of imepitoin, a novel antiepileptic drug licensed in the European Union, were evaluated in a multicentre field efficacy study as well as in a safety study under laboratory conditions. Efficacy of imepitoin was compared with phenobarbital in 226 client-owned dogs in a blinded parallel group design. The administration of imepitoin twice daily in incremental doses of 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg demonstrated comparable efficacy to phenobarbital in controlling seizures in dogs. The frequency of adverse events including somnolence/sedation, polydipsia and increased appetite was significantly higher in the phenobarbital group. In phenobarbital-treated dogs, significantly increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and other liver enzymes occurred, while no such effect was observed in the imepitoin group. In a safety study under laboratory conditions, healthy beagle dogs were administered 0, 30, 90 or 150 mg/kg imepitoin twice daily for 26 weeks. A complete safety evaluation including histopathology was included in the study. A no-observed-adverse-event level of 90 mg/kg twice daily was determined. These results indicate that imepitoin is a potent and safe antiepileptic drug for
  • Author:
    Illuzzi G; Fouquerel E; Amé J-C; Noll A; Rehmet K; Nasheuer H-P; Dantzer F; Schreiber V
    Title:
    PARG is dispensable for recovery from transient replicative stress but required to prevent detrimental accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) upon prolonged replicative stress
    Source:
    Nucleic Acids Res 42 (12), 7776-7792 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is involved in numerou. bio-logica. processes including DNA repair, transcription and cell death. Cellular levels of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) are regulated by PAR polymerases (PARPs) and the degrading enzyme PAR glycohydrolase (PARG), controlling the cell fate decision between life and death in response to DNA damage. Replication stress is a source of DNA damage, leading to transient stalling of replication forks or to their collapse followed by the generation of double-strand breaks (DSB). The involvement of PARP-1 in replicative stress response has been described, whereas the consequences of a deregulated PAR catabolism are not yet well established. Here, we show that PARG-deprived cells showed an enhanced sensitivity to the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. PARG is dispensable to recover from transient replicative stress but is necessary to avoid massive PAR production upon prolonged replicative stress, conditions leading to fork collapse and DSB. Extensive PAR accumulation impairs replication protein A association with collapsed forks resulting in compromised DSB repair via homologous recombination. Our results highlight the critical role of PARG in tightly controlling PAR levels produced upon genotoxic stress to prevent the detrimental effects of PAR over-accumulation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
  • Author:
    Schulz K; Frahm J; Meyer U; Kersten S; Reiche D; Rehage J; Dänicke S
    Title:
    Effects of prepartal body condition score and peripartal energy supply of dairy cows on postpartal lipolysis, energy balance and ketogenesis: An animal model to investigate subclinical ketosis
    Source:
    J Dairy Res 81 (3), 257-266 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Subclinical ketosis is a metabolic disorder which often goes undiagnosed and leads to constricted performance and an impairment of general condition. In the current study subclinical ketosis was characterised by a .-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration of >12 mmol/l in blood serum. To generate this metabolic situation, an animal model was created. The model, based on group-specific interaction of dietary energy supply and body condition, is appropriate for testing the medical effectiveness of treating this kind of ketosis and its concomitants. During the trial, 18 dairy cows (primiparous and pluriparous) were assigned, according to their body condition score (BCS) 6 weeks before expected parturition, to a normal [678 MJ net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg dry matter; 20% concentrate] or to a high-energy feeding group (771 MJ NEL/kg dry matter; 60% concentrate). Therefore cows with the highest BCS were allocated to the high-energy group to enhance the contrast with the control group. Statistical analysis was done using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Effects were declared significant when P-values were 005. Owing to the higher energy concentration and dry matter intake, the energy intake and balance was significantly higher in the high-energy feeding group, with strong effects on lipid metabolism and health in blood and liver post partum. Within the first 2 weeks after calving, 8 out of 9 cows (89%) of the high-energy group had BHB values indicative of subclinical ketosis. These cows also had significantly higher values of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) post partum, as well as a raised total lipid content of the liver. RQUICKI, a calculated parameter which is based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin and NEFA to assess the insulin sensitivity, was not affected by treatment. Therefore, RQUICKI does not seem to be the right parameter for diagnosing decreased insulin sensitivity in cows affected by subclinical ketosis. The milk fat and the fat:protein ratio of the high-energy group was also higher, even though there was no decrease in milk yield for cows with subclinical BHB values. © Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research 2014.
  • Author:
    Häggstrom J; Lord PF; Hoglund K; Ljungvall I; Jons O; Kvart C; Hansson K
    Title:
    Short-Term Hemodynamic and Neuroendocrine effects of Pimobendan and Benazepril in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease and Congestive heart Heart failure [Hämodynamische und neuroendokrine Kurz-zeiteffekte von Pimobendan und Benazepril bei Hunden mit myxomatöser Mitralklappene-krankung und kongestiver Herzinsuffizienz]
    Source:
    Kleintierpraxis 59 (7), 365-378 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Background: Pimobendan and benazepril are frequently used with diuretics to treat dogs in congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Aim: Jo compare the short-term effects of pimobendan versus benazepril on pump function, heart size and neuroendocrine profile in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Animals: Sixteen client-owned dogs. Materials and methods: Seven-day prospective single-blinded study of dogs stabilized on furosemide monotherapy, randomized to pimobendan (0,4-0,6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril (0,25-1,0 mg/kg/day). Dogs had first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography, and heart size was measured by radiography and echocardiography. Circulating neuroendocrine hormones were measured. Results: Baseline variables did not differ between treatment groups. Greater decreases in the pimobendan than in the benazepril group were found for heart rate (P=.001), heart rate-normalized pulmonary transit time (P=.02), left atrial size (P=.03), and systolic and diastolic left ventricular diameters (P<.001 and P=.03, respectively) and volumes (P<.001 and P=.02, respectively), whereas ejection fraction increased more (P=.02) in the pimobendan group. Of the neuroendocrine hormones, only N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-ProANP) differed (P=.04) between groups. Within groups, plasma aldosterone increased (P=.01), and NT-proANP (P=01) and NT-proB-type (P=.01) decreased in the benazepril group. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Pimobendan improves short-term cardiac function more than benazepril in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Pimobendan treatment enables the heart to work at smaller end-systolic and diastolic dimensions while maintaining adequate forward stroke volume. Some of the treatment response found in neuroendocrine profile might have therapeutic relevance.
  • Author:
    Linhares DCL; Cano JP; Torremorell M; Morrison RB
    Title:
    Comparison of time to PRRSv-stability and production losses between two exposure programs to control PRRSv in sow herds
    Source:
    Prev Vet Med 116 (1-2), 111-119 (2014)
    Abstract:
    To control and eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) from breeding herds, some veterinarians adopt a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introduction for several months and exposing the pigs to a replicating PRRSv. This was a prospective quasi-experiment that followed 61 breeding herds acutely infected with PRRSv that adopted one of two exposure programs: modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live-resident virus inoculation (LVI). Treatment groups (load-close-expose with MLV or LVI) were compared for: (a) time-to-PRRSv stability (TTS), defined as time in weeks it took to produce PRRSv negative pigs at weaning; (b) the time-to-baseline production (TTBP), defined using statistical process control methods to represent time to recover to the number of pigs weaned per week that herds had prior to PRRSv-detection; and (c) the total production loss in terms of number of pigs weaned per week. TTS and TTBP were compared between treatments using survival analysis. Day 1 of the program was considered to be the day that treatment was administered. Sampling at herds consisted of bleeding 30 due-to-wean piglets on a monthly basis. Serum was tested for PRRSv RNA by RT-PCR. Herds in which PRRSv was not detected over a 90-day period were classified as reaching stability. Multivariate analysis using proportional hazards regression was performed adjusting the effect of treatment on TTBP and TTS to 'severity of PRRSv infection', 'number of whole-herd exposures', 'days from PRRSv-detection to intervention', 'prior PRRSv-infection status' and 'veterinary clinic associated with the herd'. Total loss was compared between groups using multivariate regression analysis adjusted by selected covariates. The median TTS among participating herds was 26.6 weeks (25th to 75th percentile, 21.6-33.0 weeks). The overall TTBP was 16.5 weeks (range 0-29 weeks). The magnitude of production losses following whole-herd exposure averaged 2217 pigs not weaned/1000 sows and was correlated with TTBP. Herds in the MLV group recovered production sooner and had less total loss than herds in the LVI group. TTBP and TTS were significantly shorter and the total loss was significantly less in herds assisted by a specific veterinary clinic and herds that were infected with PRRSv in the 3 years prior to the study. This study provided new metrics to assist veterinarians to decide between methods of exposure to control and eliminate PRRSv from breeding herds. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
  • Author:
    Steens R
    Title:
    Diagnostics in vaccination populations - A challenge [Diagnostik in Impfbeständen - Eine Herausforderung]
    Source:
    Tieraerztl Umsch 69 (6), 248-249 (2014)
  • Author:
    Weimer SL; Johnson AK; Fangman TJ; Karriker LA; Tyler HD; Stalder KJ
    Title:
    Comparison of nursery pig behavior assessed using human observation and digital-image evaluation methodologies
    Source:
    J Swine Health Prod 22 (3), 116-124 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Objectives: To design and implement a digital photograph system to document the pig response to a human observer in the home pen and then compare these results to a human observation in an approach-assessment paradigm. Materials and methods: An observer entered the nursery pen and crouched down with an outstretched arm for 15 seconds. A digital image was recorded, and the observer counted all pigs touching, oriented, and not oriented to the human. Each digital image was used to determine the snout and tail-base proximity to the index finger of the observer for pigs classified as Touch, Oriented, and Not Oriented when pens were divided into thirds and quarters. Postures and behaviors of pigs classified as Not Oriented were further delineated. Human observation and digital image were compared. Results: Most Not Oriented pigs in the digital image were standing, followed by-sitting, with 2.5% piling. Both snout and tail-base proximities were closer for Touch pigs than for the other categories {P < .001). Regardless of how pens were divided, more pigs were located in the section farthest from the observer. There were no differences (P > .05) between human observation and digital-image evaluation for pigs classified as Touch. More pigs were classified as Oriented and fewer as Not Oriented for digital-image evaluation (P <.001). Implication: Human observation is a faster and practical application, but digital-image evaluation allows for more information to be collected.
  • Author:
    Mondaca E; Batista L; Cano J-P; Díaz E; Philips R; Polson D
    Title:
    General guidelines for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome regional control and elimination projects
    Abstract:
    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be a costly disease affecting the swine industry worldwide. While veterinarians have developed a variety of strategies to control and eliminate the disease from pig herds, the risk of re-infection remains high even with the best current practices of management and biosecurity. The repeated failures of non-coordinated control and elimination efforts and the ease with which the disease is transmitted from one herd to another strongly suggest that a regional approach will be necessary. The regional approach for fighting PRRS proposes control in areas of high PRRS prevalence and high pig density, while elimination is potentially feasible in areas of low PRRS prevalence and low pig density. The purpose of this document is to outline a plan to implement PRRS regional control and elimination projects. The plan consists of five phases: evaluate the feasibility of the project, identify pig-related facilities in the area, classify pig sites according to their PRRS virus infection status, design PRRS control strategies, and execute and monitor these PRRS control strategies. Eventually, the focus of individual projects will be to merge with adjacent regional projects and, depending on overall infection risk and feasibility, pursue PRRS elimination.
  • Author:
    Linhares DCL; Cano JP; Torremorell M; Morrison RB
    Title:
    Comparison of time to PRRSv-stability and production losses between two exposure programs to control PRRSv in sow herds
    Source:
    Prev Vet Med Article in Press (2014)
    Abstract:
    To control and eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) from breeding herds, some veterinarians adopt a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introduction for several months and exposing the pigs to a replicating PRRSv. This was a prospective quasi-experiment that followed 61 breeding herds acutely infected with PRRSv that adopted one of two exposure programs: modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live-resident virus inoculation (LVI). Treatment groups (load-close-expose with MLV or LVI) were compared for: (a) time-to-PRRSv stability (TTS), defined as time in weeks it took to produce PRRSv negative pigs at weaning; (b) the time-to-baseline production (TTBP), defined using statistical process control methods to represent time to recover to the number of pigs weaned per week that herds had prior to PRRSv-detection; and (c) the total production loss in terms of number of pigs weaned per week. TTS and TTBP were compared between treatments using survival analysis. Day 1 of the program was considered to be the day that treatment was administered. Sampling at herds consisted of bleeding 30 due-to-wean piglets on a monthly basis. Serum was tested for PRRSv RNA by RT-PCR. Herds in which PRRSv was not detected over a 90-day period were classified as reaching stability. Multivariate analysis using proportional hazards regression was performed adjusting the effect of treatment on TTBP and TTS to 'severity of PRRSv infection', 'number of whole-herd exposures', 'days from PRRSv-detection to intervention', 'prior PRRSv-infection status' and 'veterinary clinic associated with the herd'. Total loss was compared between groups using multivariate regression analysis adjusted by selected covariates. The median TTS among participating herds was 26.6 weeks (25th to 75th percentile, 21.6-33.0 weeks). The overall TTBP was 16.5 weeks (range 0-29 weeks). The magnitude of production losses following whole-herd exposure averaged 2217 pigs not weaned/1000 sows and was correlated with TTBP. Herds in the MLV group recovered production sooner and had less total loss than herds in the LVI group. TTBP and TTS were significantly shorter and the total loss was significantly less in herds assisted by a specific veterinary clinic and herds that were infected with PRRSv in the 3 years prior to the study. This study provided new metrics to assist veterinarians to decide between methods of exposure to control and eliminate PRRSv from breeding herds. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Author:
    Barrier AC; Coombs TM; Dwyer CM; Haskell MJ; Goby L
    Title:
    Administration of a NSAID (meloxicam) affects lying behaviour after caesarean section in beef cows
    Source:
    Appl Anim Behav Sci 155, 28-33 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Very little is known about the pain experienced by cattle following caesarean section and hence little consideration has been given to managing it. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate activity-related behavioural changes in response to pain, by pre-emptively administering a long acting NSAID to beef cows undergoing caesarean section. One hundred and ten beef cows (55 primiparous, 55 multiparous) that underwent non-elective standardised caesarean section were recruited from eight French veterinary practices. Cows received pre-emptively either meloxicam (n= 63) or placebo (n= 47) according to a blind randomised schedule. Pedometers were attached to each cow's left hindleg and activity was monitored from 0. h (end of surgery) to 68. h post-partum. Time spent lying, number of steps and counts of lying bouts were calculated for the following periods: 0-8. h, 8-16. h, 16-24. h, 24-48. h and 48-68. h and analysed with a REML procedure.Cows receiving meloxicam spent significantly more time lying in the 0-8. h and 8-16. h periods following surgery than cows receiving placebo (+27.4 and +26.4. min, respectively; P<. 0.05) and had more bouts of lying in the first 24. h (P<. 0.05). No differences were seen in the number of steps taken (P>. 0.05). These findings may be interpreted as suggesting that increased lying following caesarean section is an indicator of increased comfort; moreover, it may also suggest that improved welfare, for parturient cows, can be obtained with NSAID treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
  • Author:
    Ulrich R; Puff C; Wewetzer K; Kalkuhl A; Deschl U; Baumgar.tner W
    Title:
    Transcriptional changes in canine distemper virus-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis favor a biphasic mode of demyelination
    Source:
    PLoS ONE 9 (4) art.no.e-5917 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs (Canis familiaris) is suggested to represent a naturally occurring translational model for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis in humans. The aim of this study was a hypothesis-free microarray analysis of the transcriptional changes within cerebellar specimens of five cases of acute, six cases of subacute demyelinating, and three cases of chronic demyelinating and inflammatory CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to twelve non-infected control dogs. Frozen cerebellar specimens were used for analysis of histopathological changes including demyelination, transcriptional changes employing microarrays, and presence of CDV nucleoprotein RNA and protein using microarrays, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 780 differentially expressed probe sets. The dominating change was an up-regulation of genes related to the innate and the humoral immune response, and less distinct the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response in all subtypes of CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to controls. Multiple myelin genes including myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein displayed a selective down-regulation in subacute CDV leukoencephalitis, suggestive of an oligodendrocyte dystrophy. In contrast, a marked up-regulation of multiple immunoglobulin-like expressed sequence tags and the delta polypeptide of the CD3 antigen was observed in chronic CDV leukoencephalitis, in agreement with the hypothesis of an immune-mediated demyelination in the late inflammatory phase of the disease. Analysis of pathways intimately linked to demyelination as determined by morphometry employing correlation-based Gene Set Enrichment Analysis highlighted the pathomechanistic importance of up-regulated genes comprised by the gene ontology terms "viral replication" and "humoral immune response" as well as down-regulated genes functionally related to "metabolite and energy generation". © 2014 Ulrich et al.
  • Author:
    .krnjug I; Rueckert C; Libanova R; Lienenklaus S; Weiss S; Guzmán CA
    Title:
    The mucosal adjuvant cyclic di-AMP exerts immune stimulatory effects on dendritic cells and macrophages
    Source:
    PLoS ONE 9 (4) art.no.e95728 (2014)
    Abstract:
    The cyclic di-nucleotide bis-(3.,5.)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a candidate mucosal adjuvant with proven efficacy in preclinical models. It was shown to promote specific humoral and cellular immune responses following mucosal administration. To date, there is only fragmentary knowledge on the cellular and molecular mode of action of c-di-AMP. Here, we report on the identification of dendritic cells and macrophages as target cells of c-di-AMP. We show that c-di-AMP induces the cell surface up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory molecules as well as the production of interferon-.. Those responses were characterized by in vitro experiments with murine and human immune cells and in vivo studies in mice. Analyses of dendritic cell subsets revealed conventional dendritic cells as principal responders to stimulation by c-di-AMP. We discuss the impact of the reported antigen presenting cell activation on the previously observed adjuvant effects of c-di-AMP in mouse immunization studies. © 2014 .krnjug et al.
  • Author:
    Barrier AC; Coombs TM; Dwyer CM; Haskell MJ; Goby L
    Title:
    Administration of a NSAID (meloxicam) affects lying behaviour after caesarean section in beef cows
    Source:
    Appl Anim Behav Sci Article in Press (2014)
    Abstract:
    Very little is known about the pain experienced by cattle following caesarean section and hence little consideration has been given to managing it. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate activity-related behavioural changes in response to pain, by pre-emptively administering a long acting NSAID to beef cows undergoing caesarean section. One hundred and ten beef cows (55 primiparous, 55 multiparous) that underwent non-elective standardised caesarean section were recruited from eight French veterinary practices. Cows received pre-emptively either meloxicam (n = 63) or placebo (n = 47) according to a blind randomised schedule. Pedometers were attached to each cow's left hindleg and activity was monitored from 0 h (end of surgery) to 68 h post-partum. Time spent lying, number of steps and counts of lying bouts were calculated for the following periods: 0-8 h, 8-16 h, 16-24 h, 24-48 h and 48-68 h and analysed with a REML procedure. Cows receiving meloxicam spent significantly more time lying in the 0-8 h and 8-16 h periods following surgery than cows receiving placebo (+27.4 and +26.4 min, respectively; P < 0.05) and had more bouts of lying in the first 24 h (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in the number of steps taken (P > 0.05). These findings may be interpreted as suggesting that increased lying following caesarean section is an indicator of increased comfort; moreover, it may also suggest that improved welfare, for parturient cows, can be obtained with NSAID treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Author:
    Häggström J; Boswood A; O'Grady M; Jöns O; Smith S; Borgarelli M; Gavaghan B; Kresken J-G; Patteson M; Åblad B; Bussadori CM; Glaus T; Kova.evi. A; Rapp M; Santilli RA; Tidholm A; Eriksson A; Belanger MC; Deinert M; Little CJL; Kvart C; French A; Rønn-Landbo M; Wess G; Eggertsdottir A; O'Sullivan ML; Schneider M; Lombard CW; Dukes-McEwan J; Willis R; Louvet A; Difruscia R
    Title:
    Longitudinal analysis of quality of life, clinical, radiographic, echocardiographic, and laboratory variables in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease receiving pimobendan or benazepril: The QUEST study [Langzeitanalyse von Parametern der Lebensqualität sowie klinischen, radiografischen, echokardiografischen und labordiagnostischen Variablen bei Hunden mit myxomatöser Mitralklappenerkrankung, die mit Pimobendan oder Benazepril behandelt werden: Die QUEST*-Studie]
    Source:
    Kleintierpraxis 59 (3), 117-134 (2014)
    Abstract:
    Background: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. Objectives: To compare, throughout the period of follow-up of dogs that had not yet reached the primary endpoint, the longitudinal effects of pimobendan versus benazepril hydrochloride treatment on quality-of-life (QoL) variables, concomitant congestive heart failure (CHF) treatment, and other outcome variables in dogs suffering from CHF secondary to MMVD. Animals: A total of 260 dogs in CHF because of MMVD. Methods: A prospective single-blinded study with dogs randomized to receive pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril hydrochloride (0.25-1.0 mg/kg/day). Differences in outcome variables and time to intensification of CHF treatment were compared. Results: A total of 124 dogs were randomized to pimobendan and 128 to benazepril. No difference was found between groups in QoL variables during the trial. Time from inclusion to 1st intensification of CHF treatment was longer in the pimobendan group (pimobendan 98 days, IQR 30-276 days versus benazepril 59 days, IQR 11-121 days; P =.0005). Postinclusion, dogs in the pimobendan group had smaller heart size based on VHS score (P =.013) and left ventricular diastolic (P =.035) and systolic (P =.0044) dimensions, higher body temperature (P =.030), serum sodium (P =.0027), and total protein (P =.0003) concentrations, and packed cell volume (P =.030). Incidence of arrhythmias was similar in treatment groups. Conclusions and clinical importance: Pimobendan versus benazepril resulted in similar QoL during the study, but conferred increased time before intensification of CHF treatment. Pimobendan treatment resulted in smaller heart size, higher body temperature, and less retention of free water.
  • Author:
    Guccione J; Pesce A; Pascale M; Tommasini N; Garofalo F; Di Loria A; Cortese L; Salzano C; Ciaramella P
    Title:
    Short communication: Effects of systemic treatment with penethamate hydriodide on udder health and milk yields in dry primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci Article in Press (2014)
    Abstract:
    The effects of penethamate hydriodide (Mamyzin, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) on udder health and milk yields were evaluated in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). An intramuscular administration of 10 million international units was performed in 20 buffaloes at 7 d precalving (treatment group; TG), and 20 animals were The effects of penethamate hydriodide (Mamyzin, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) on udder health and milk yields were evaluated in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). An intramuscular administration of 10 million international units was performed in 20 buffaloes at 7 d precalving (treatment group; TG), and 20 animals were The effects of penethamate hydriodide (Mamyzin, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) on udder health and milk yields were evaluated in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). An intramuscular administration of 10 million international units was performed in 20 buffaloes at 7 d precalving (treatment group; TG), and 20 animals were The effects of penethamate hydriodide (Mamyzin, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany) on udder health and milk yields were evaluated in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). An intramuscular administration of 10 million international units was performed in 20 buffaloes at 7 d precalving (treatment group; TG), and 20 animals were enrolled as the control group (CG). Evening milk samplings were performed at 10, 30, and 60 d in milk (DIM). Somatic cell count (SCC) values were evaluated on composite milk samples, whereas bacteriological culture and California Mastitis Test were performed on quarter milk. Daily milk yields were recorded after all milkings. After 60 DIM, composite milk samples from each animal were collected for monthly SCC and bacteriological culture until drying off. Statistically significant differences were found between the prevalence of mastitic quarters in the 2 groups at 10 and 30 DIM, and between the incidence of mastitic animals during the examined period (TG: 4/20, 20% vs. CG: 10/20, 50%). Even though lower and higher values of SCC and milk yields were found in TG during each sampling, statistically significant differences were only found at 30 (SCC) and 60 DIM (milk yields). In our study, the antibiotic administration precalving showed good bactericidal activity against the most common udder-specific pathogens that cause mastitis in primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes, and greater efficacy was observed at 10 and 30 DIM compared with 60 DIM. Given the significant decrease in SCC and increase in yields achieved, use of this antibiotic could be economically beneficial in buffalo breeding. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.
  • Author:
    Häggström J; Boswood A; O'Grady M; Jöns O; Smith S; Swift S; Borgarelli M; Gavaghan B; Kresken J-G; Patteson M; Åblad B; Bussadori CM; Glaus T; Kova.evi. A; Rapp M; Santilli RA; Tidholm A; Eriksson A; Belanger MC; Deinert M; Little CJL; Kvart C; French A; Rønn-Landbo M; Wess G; Eggertsdottir A; Lynne O'Sullivan M; Schneider M; Lombard CW; Dukes-Mcewan J; Willis R; Louvet A; Difruscia R
    Title:
    Longitudinal analysis of quality of life, clinical, radiographic, echocardiographic, and laboratory variables in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease receiving pimobendan or benazepril: The QUEST study
    Source:
    J Vet Intern Med 27 (6), 1441-1451 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Background: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. Objectives: To compare, throughout the period of follow-up of dogs that had not yet reached the primary endpoint, the longitudinal effects of pimobendan versus benazepril hydrochloride treatment on quality-of-life (QoL) variables, concomitant congestive heart failure (CHF) treatment, and other outcome variables in dogs suffering from CHF secondary to MMVD. Animals: A total of 260 dogs in CHF because of MMVD. Methods: A prospective single-blinded study with dogs randomized to receive pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril hydrochloride (0.25-1.0 mg/kg/day). Differences in outcome variables and time to intensification of CHF treatment were compared. Results: A total of 124 dogs were randomized to pimobendan and 128 to benazepril. No difference was found between groups in QoL variables during the trial. Time from inclusion to 1st intensification of CHF treatment was longer in the pimobendan group (pimobendan 98 days, IQR 30-276 days versus benazepril 59 days, IQR 11-121 days; P = .0005). Postinclusion, dogs in the pimobendan group had smaller heart size based on VHS score (P = .013) and left ventricular diastolic (P = .035) and systolic (P = .0044) dimensions, higher body temperature (P = .030), serum sodium (P = .0027), and total protein (P = .0003) concentrations, and packed cell volume (P = .030). Incidence of arrhythmias was similar in treatment groups. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Pimobendan versus benazepril resulted in similar QoL during the study, but conferred increased time before intensification of CHF treatment. Pimobendan treatment resulted in smaller heart size, higher body temperature, and less retention of free water. © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
  • Author:
    Häggström J; Lord PF; Höglund K; Ljungvall I; Jöns O; Kvart C; Hansson K
    Title:
    Short-term hemodynamic and neuroendocrine effects of pimobendan and benazapril in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease and congestive heart failure
    Source:
    J Vet Intern Med 27 (6), 1452-1462 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Background: Pimobendan and benazepril are frequently used with diuretics to treat dogs in congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Aim: To compare the short-term effects of pimobendan versus benazepril on pump function, heart size, and neuroendocrine profile in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Animals: Sixteen client-owned dogs. Material and methods: Seven-day prospective single-blinded study of dogs stabilized on furosemide monotherapy, randomized to pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril (0.25-1.0 mg/kg/day). Dogs had first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography, and heart size was measured by radiography and echocardiography. Circulating neuroendocrine hormones were measured. Results: Baseline variables did not differ between treatment groups. Greater decreases in the pimobendan than in the benazepril group were found for heart rate (P = .001), heart rate-normalized pulmonary transit time (P = .02), left atrial size (P = .03), and systolic and diastolic left ventricular diameters (P < .001 and P = .03, respectively) and volumes (P < .001 and P = .02, respectively), whereas ejection fraction increased more (P = .02) in the pimobendan group. Of the neuroendocrine hormones, only N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-ProANP) differed (P = .04) between groups. Within groups, plasma aldosterone increased (P = .01), and NT-proANP (P = .01) and NT-proB-type (P = .02) natriuretic peptide decreased in the pimobendan group, and NT-proANP (P = .02) and plasma vasopressin (P = .01) decreased in the benazepril group. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Pimobendan improves short-term cardiac function more than benazepril in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Pimobendan treatment enables the heart to work at smaller end-systolic and diastolic dimensions while maintaining adequate forward stroke volume. Some of the treatment responses found in neuroendocrine profile might have therapeutic relevance. © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
  • Author:
    Platt R; Ng T; Glover S; Roof M; Kimura K; Roth JA
    Title:
    Canine peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotyping by 7-color multiparameter flow cytometry
    Source:
    Anal Quant Cytol Histol 35 (4), 197-204 (2013)
    Abstract:
    OBJECTIVE: To characterize baseline canine lymphocyte phenotypes including lymphocytes coexpressing multiple markers by novel 7-color multiparameter flow cytometry. STUDY DESIGN: Fresh canine peripheral blood lymphocytes of 79 healthy 26-week-old Beagle or Beagle-mix dogs were stained and analyzed. RESULTS: The high number of samples and acquired flow data (averaging 1.9 × 105 cells/sample) allowed the detection of minor lymphocyte subsets coexpressing multiple lymphocyte markers. The averaged percentages of major lymphocyte subsets of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD21+ and .. TCR+ cells from this study were 74.0, 43.6, 14.3, 9.6, and 0.2, respectively, which were comparable but uniquely different from other reports as they were simultaneously detected in the same sample. We demonstrated that the commonly used CD21 and CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) clones, previously recommended not to be used in the same staining, could and should be used together with the proper steps of lymphocyte gating. We found a high percentage (10.3%) of unidentified CD21-CD3+CD4- CD8- .. TCR- lymphocyte subset that has never been reported. The intensive gating strategy and the mean percentages of each lymphocyte subset to their parent subsets and to the total lymphocyte population are presented and discussed. CONCLUSION: The canine lymphocyte phenotypes were fully characterized. This novel multiparameter flow cytometry method is a powerful approach to in-crease the accuracy of lymphocyte phenotyping in dogs. © Science Printers and Publishers, Inc.
  • Author:
    Hoenig M; Traas AM; Schaeffer DJ
    Title:
    Evaluation of routine hematology profile results and fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations in lean, overweight, obese, and diabetic cats
    Source:
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 243 (9), 1302-1309 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Objective-To compare results of hematologic testing in nondiabetic and diabetic cats to identify possible indicators of alterations in long-term glucose control. Design-Cross-sectional study. Animals-117 client-owned cats (76 nondiabetic cats [25 with normal body condition, 27 overweight, and 24 obese] and 41 naïve [n = 21] and treated [20] diabetic cats). Procedures-Signalment and medical history, including data on feeding practices, were collected. A body condition score was assigned, and feline body mass index was calculated. Complete blood counts and serum biochemical analyses, including determination of fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations, were performed. Urine samples were obtained and analyzed. Results-Glucose and fructosamine concentrations were significantly higher in the naïve and treated diabetic cats than in the nondiabetic cats. Insulin and proinsulin concentrations were highest in the obese cats but had great individual variation. Few other variables were significantly different among cat groups. Most cats, even when obese or diabetic, had unlimited access to food. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that cats at risk of developing diabetes (ie, overweight and obese cats) could not be distinguished from cats with a normal body condition on the basis of results of isolated hematologic testing. A longitudinal study is indicated to follow nondiabetic cats over a period of several years to identify those that eventually develop diabetes. Findings also suggested that dietary education of cat owners might be inadequate.
  • Author:
    Häggström J; Lord PF; Höglund K; Ljungvall I; Jöns O; Kvart C; Hansson K
    Title:
    Short-Term Hemodynamic and Neuroendocrine Effects of Pimobendan and Benazapril in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease and Congestive Heart Failure
    Source:
    J Vet Intern Med Article in press (2013)
    Abstract:
    Background: Pimobendan and benazepril are frequently used with diuretics to treat dogs in congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Aim: To compare the short-term effects of pimobendan versus benazepril on pump function, heart size, and neuroendocrine profile in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Animals: Sixteen client-owned dogs. Material and methods: Seven-day prospective single-blinded study of dogs stabilized on furosemide monotherapy, randomized to pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril (0.25-1.0 mg/kg/day). Dogs had first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography, and heart size was measured by radiography and echocardiography. Circulating neuroendocrine hormones were measured. Results: Baseline variables did not differ between treatment groups. Greater decreases in the pimobendan than in the benazepril group were found for heart rate (P = .001), heart rate-normalized pulmonary transit time (P = .02), left atrial size (P = .03), and systolic and diastolic left ventricular diameters (P < .001 and P = .03, respectively) and volumes (P < .001 and P = .02, respectively), whereas ejection fraction increased more (P = .02) in the pimobendan group. Of the neuroendocrine hormones, only N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-ProANP) differed (P = .04) between groups. Within groups, plasma aldosterone increased (P = .01), and NT-proANP (P = .01) and NT-proB-type (P = .02) natriuretic peptide decreased in the pimobendan group, and NT-proANP (P = .02) and plasma vasopressin (P = .01) decreased in the benazepril group. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Pimobendan improves short-term cardiac function more than benazepril in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD. Pimobendan treatment enables the heart to work at smaller end-systolic and diastolic dimensions while maintaining adequate forward stroke volume. Some of the treatment responses found in neuroendocrine profile might have therapeutic relevance. © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
  • Author:
    Walker RS; Miller JE; Monlezun CJ; LaMay D; Navarre C; Ensley D
    Title:
    Gastrointestinal nematode infection and performance of weaned stocker calves in response to anthelmintic control strategies
    Source:
    Vet Parasitol 197 (1) (2), 152-159 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite control recommendations are in a state of flux because of the increase in anthelmintic resistant cattle parasites, such as Cooperia spp. In addition, Cooperia spp. infection is typically high in warm-season grass pastures and can affect growth performance of grazing stocker calves in the Gulf Coast Region. This study evaluated the effects of moxidectin pour-on, oxfendazole oral suspension, or a combination of the two given at separate times on infection and performance of weaned beef calves grazing summer forages. Steers (n= 42) and heifers (n= 31) were stratified by sex, d-11 fecal egg count (FEC), and d-1 shrunk body weight (BW) to one of 10 pastures with four anthelmintic treatments and one control. Treatments included: (1) oxfendazole given on d 0 and moxidectin on d 73 (O. +. M), (2) moxidectin given on d 0 and oxfendazole on d 73 (M. +. O), (3) moxidectin given on d 0 (M), (4) oxfendazole given on d 0 (O) and (5) no anthelmintic given (CON). Calves grazed for d-110 beginning May 27th. Response variables were FEC (collected on d-11, 14, 31, 45, 59, 73, 87 and 108), coprocultures (evaluated for d 87 and 108), final shrunk BW, shrunk BW gain, average daily gain (ADG), and full BW gain (collected on d 31, 59, 73, 87, and 108). Calves treated with either oxfendazole (O. +. M and O) or moxidectin (M. +. O and M) on d 0 had significantly lower (P<. 0.001) FEC than the CON calves on d 14, 31 and 45. However, the M. +. O treated calves had significantly higher (P<. 0.001) FEC than both oxfendazole treated groups. In addition, calves treated with a second dewormer on d 73 (O. +. M and M. +. O) had significantly lower (P<. 0.001) FEC by d 87 than the CON or M treated calves. Shrunk BW gain and ADG were significantly greater (P= 0.005) for the O. +. M compared to the M treated and CON calves, but comparable with the M. +. O and O treated calves, respectively. Coprocultures sampled on d 87 and 108 for calves not receiving a second dewormer were predominantly Cooperia spp. and Ostertagia spp. On d 87, no larvae were recovered from the M. +. O treated calves, whereas the O. +. M treated calves had 94% Cooperia spp. and 3% Ostertagia spp. recovered. Providing a benzimidazole with a macrocyclic lactone given at two different periods may provide better GIN parasite control and improve animal gains for stocker calves grazing warm-season grass pastures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
  • Author:
    Alonso C; Davies PR; Polson DD; Dee SA; Lazarus WF
    Title:
    Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds
    Source:
    Prev Vet Med 111 (3) (4), 268-277 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7. km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
  • Author:
    Gostelow R; Bridger N; Syme HM
    Title:
    Plasma-Free Metanephrine and Free Normetanephrine Measurement for the Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma in Dogs
    Source:
    J Vet Intern Med 27 (1), 83-90 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Background: Measurement of plasma-free metanephrines is the test of choice to identify pheochromocytoma in human patients. Objectives: To establish the sensitivity and specificity of plasma-free metanephrine (fMN) and free normetanephrine (fNMN) concentrations to diagnose pheochromocytoma in dogs. Animals: Forty-five client-owned dogs (8 dogs with pheochromocytoma, 11 dogs with adrenocortical tumors, 15 dogs with nonadrenal disease, and 11 healthy dogs.) Methods: A prospective study. EDTA plasma was collected from diseased and healthy dogs and submitted for fMN and fNMN measurement by liquid chromatography­ tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results: Free MN concentration (median [range]) was significantly higher in dogs with pheochromocytoma (8.15 [1.73-175.231 nmoi/L) than in healthy dogs (0.95 [0.68-3.081 nmoi/L; P < .01) and dogs with adrenocortical tumors (0.92 [0.25-2.511 nmoi/L; P < .001), but was not different from dogs with nonadrenal disease (1.91 [0.41- 6.571 nmoi/L; P 2! .05). Free NMN concentration was significantly higher in dogs with pheochromocytoma (63.89 [10.19-190.31] nmoi/L) than in healthy dogs (2.54 [1.59-4.171 nmoi/L; P < .001), dogs with nonadrenal disease (3.30 [1.30-10.101 nmoi!L; P < .001), and dogs with adrenocortical tumors (2.96 [1.92-5.011 nmoi!L); P < 0.01). When used to diagnose pheochromocytoma, a fMN concentration of 4.18 nmoi/L had a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 97.3%, and a fNMN concentration of 5.52 nmoi/L had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 97.6%. Conclusions and Clinicallmportance: Plasma fNMN concentration has excellent sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in dogs, whereas fMN concentration has moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity. Measurement of plasma-free metanephrines provides an effective, noninvasive, means of identifying dogs with pheochromocytoma. © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
  • Author:
    Foerster M
    Title:
    The treatment of idiopathic epilepsy [Die Therapie der idiopathischen Epilepsie]
    Source:
    Kleintierpraxis 58 (7), 380-381 (2013)
  • Author:
    Li C; Li Z; Zou Y; Wicht O; van Kuppeveld FJM; Rottier PJM; Bosch BJ
    Title:
    Manipulation of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Genome Using Targeted RNA Recombination
    Source:
    PLoS ONE 8 (8) e69997 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe economic losses in the swine industry in China and other Asian countries. Infection usually leads to an acute, often lethal diarrhea in piglets. Despite the impact of the disease, no system is yet available to manipulate the viral genome which has severely hampered research on this virus until today. We have established a reverse genetics system for PEDV based on targeted RNA recombination that allows the modification of the 3.-end of the viral genome, which encodes the structural proteins and the ORF3 protein. Using this system, we deleted the ORF3 gene entirely from the viral genome and showed that the ORF3 protein is not essential for replication of the virus in vitro. In addition, we inserted heterologous genes (i.e. the GFP and Renilla luciferase genes) at two positions in the viral genome, either as an extra expression cassette or as a replacement for the ORF3 gene. We demonstrated the expression of both GFP and Renilla luciferase as well as the application of these viruses by establishing a convenient and rapid virus neutralization assay. The new PEDV reverse genetics system will enable functional studies of the structural proteins and the accessory ORF3 protein and will allow the rational design and development of next generation PEDV vaccines. © 2013 Li et al.
  • Author:
    Wohlsein P; Deschl U; Baumgärtner W
    Title:
    Nonlesions, Unusual Cell Types, and Postmartern Artifacts in the Central Nervaus System of Domestic Animals
    Source:
    Vet Pathol 50 (1), 122-143 (2013)
    Abstract:
    ln the central nervaus system (CNS) of domestic animals, numerous specialized normal structures, unusual cell types, findings of uncertain or no significance, artifacts, and various postmartern alterations can be observed. They may cause confusion for inexperienced pathologists and those not specialized in neuropathology, leading to misinterpretations and wrang diagnoses. Alternatively, changes may mask underlying neuropathological processes. "Specialized structures" comprising the hippocampus and the circumventricular organs, including the vascular organ of the Iamina terminalis, subfornical organ, subcommissural organ, pineal gland, median eminence/neurohypophyseal complex, choroid plexus, and area postrema, are displayed. Unusual cell types, including cerebellar external germinal cells, CNS progenitor cells, and Kolmer cells, are presented. ln addition, some newly recognized cell types as of yet incompletely understood significance and functionality, such as synantocytes and aldynoglia, are introduced and described. Unusual reactive astrocytes in cats, central chromatolysis, neuronal vacuolation, spheroids, spongiosis, satellitosis, melanosis, neuromelanin, lipofuscin, polyglucosan bodies, and psammoma bodies may represent incidental findings of uncertain or no significance and should not be confused with significant microscopic changes. Auto- and heterolysis as weil as handling and histotechnological processing may cause postmartern morphological changes of the CNS, including vacuolization, cerebellar conglutination, dark neurons, Buscaino bodies, freezing, and shrinkage artifacts, all of which have to be differentiated from genuine lesions. Postmartern invasion of micro-organisms should not be confused with intravital infections. Awareness of these different changes and their recognition are a prerequisite for identifying genuine lesions and may help to formulate a professional morphological and etiological diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2012.
  • Author:
    Mead J
    Title:
    Use of pexion
    Source:
    Vet Rec 173 (3), 78 (2013)
    Abstract:
    -
  • Author:
    Wetzel M; Henke J; Martin A; Ittrich C
    Title:
    Behavioral and Neurochemical Analyses of Different Housing Conditions in C57BL/6J Mice: Implication for the 3Rs
    Source:
    J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 51 (5), 680-680 (2013)
  • Author:
    Guillot M; Moreau M; Heit M; Martel-Pelletier J; Pelletier J-P; Troncy E
    Title:
    Characterization of osteoarthritis in cats and meloxicam efficacy using objective chronic pain evaluation tools
    Source:
    Vet J Lond 196 (3), 360-367 (2013)
    Abstract:
    This study aimed to characterize osteoarthritis (OA)-related chronic pain and disability in experimental cats with naturally occurring OA. Peak vertical ground reaction force (PVF), accelerometer-based motor activity (MA) and the von Frey anesthesiometer-induced paw withdrawal threshold were used to define OA and to test the efficacy of meloxicam. A diagnosis of OA was based on radiographic and orthopedic examinations. Cats with OA (n= 39) and classified as non-OA (n= 6) were used to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the parameters to assess OA over 3. weeks while being administered placebo medication. A randomised parallel design study was then used to investigate the effects on OA of daily oral meloxicam treatment for 4. weeks at different dose rates (0.025. mg/kg, n= 10. mg/kg; 0.04. mg/kg, n= 10; 0.05. mg/kg, n= 9), compared to cats administered a placebo (n= 10).The test-retest repeatability for each tool was good (intra-class correlation coefficient .0.6). The PVF and the von Frey anesthesiometer-induced paw withdrawal threshold discriminated OA (P< 0.05). Meloxicam did not add to the PVF improvement observed in placebo-treated cats during the treatment period (adj- P. 0.01). The 0.025 and the 0.05. mg/kg meloxicam-treated cats experienced a higher night-time (17:00-06:58. h) MA intensity during the treatment period compared to the placebo period (adj- P= 0.04, and 0.02, respectively) and this effect was not observed in the placebo group. The high allodynia rate observed in the 0.04. mg/kg meloxicam-treated group may explain the lower responsiveness to the drug. The von Frey anesthesiometer-induced paw withdrawal threshold demonstrated no responsiveness to meloxicam. The results from this study indicated that daily oral meloxicam administration for 4. weeks provided pain relief according to night-time MA. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Author:
    Gorden PJ; van der List M; Lehman FD; Lantz RK; Constable PD
    Title:
    Elimination kinetics of cephapirin sodium in milk after an 8-day extended therapy program of daily intramammary infusion in healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci 96 (7), 4455-4464 (2013)
    Abstract:
    The objective of this study was to determine the elimination kinetics of extended therapy with intramammary (IMM) cephapirin in lactating dairy cattle. Eight healthy Holstein-Friesian cows were administered cephapirin (200mg) into all 4 mammary glands every 24 h after milking. Cows were milked 3 times per day and concentrations of cephapirin and desacetyl cephapirin were determined in bucket milk using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Milk concentration-time data after the last of the 8 IMM infusions were fitted using compartment and noncompartmental models. The maximum cephapirin concentration was 128±57 .g/mL (mean ± SD), the elimination rate constant from the central compartment was 0.278±0.046 (h-1), clearance was 0.053±0.023 L/h, the half time for elimination was 2.55±0.40 h, and the mean residence time was 2.65±0.79 h. The cephapirin concentration was below the approved tolerance in all cows by 96 h after the last infusion, which is the labeled withholding time for the preparation used. Extended therapy for 8 d provided milk cephapirin concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for common gram-positive mastitis pathogens (0.1 to 1.0 .g/mL) for the duration of therapy and for an additional 16 to 32 h after the end of treatment. Our findings suggest that this IMM cephapirin sodium formulation, which is labeled for 2 doses 12 h apart, could be administered at a 24-h interval for up to 8 d in cows milked 3 times per day, with no significant effect on residue levels by 96 h after the last treatment. Longer withdrawal times would be prudent for cows with low milk production. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.
  • Author:
    Held H-D; Wein M; Pieper M
    Title:
    Aterial and venous pharmacokinetic plasma profiles of tiotropium in high temporal resolution after inhalation administration to Beagle dogs
    Source:
    ATS 2013
  • Author:
    Olsen C; Wang C; Christopher-Hennings J; Doolittle K; Harmon KM; Abate S; Kittawornrat A; Lizano S; Main R; Nelson EA; Otterson T; Panyasing Y; Rademacher C; Rauh R; Shah R; Zimmerman J
    Title:
    Probability of detecting Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection using pen-based swine oral fluid specimens as a function of within-pen prevalence
    Source:
    J Vet Diagn Invest 25 (3), 328-335 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Pen-based oral fluid sampling has proven to be an efficient method for surveillance of infectious diseases in swine populations. To better interpret diagnostic results, the performance of oral fluid assays (antibody- and nucleic acid-based) must be established for pen-based oral fluid samples. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine the probability of detecting Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in pen-based oral fluid samples from pens of known PRRSV prevalence. In 1 commercial swine barn, 25 pens were assigned to 1 of 5 levels of PRRSV prevalence (0%, 4%, 12%, 20%, or 36%) by placing a fixed number (0, 1, 3, 5, or 9) of PRRSV-positive pigs (14 days post PRRSV modified live virus vaccination) in each pen. Prior to placement of the vaccinated pigs, 1 oral fluid sample was collected from each pen. Thereafter, 5 oral fluid samples were collected from each pen, for a total of 150 samples. To confirm individual pig PRRSV status, serum samples from the PRRSV-negative pigs (n = 535) and the PRRSV vaccinated pigs (n = 90) were tested for PRRSV antibodies and PRRSV RNA. The 150 pen-based oral fluid samples were assayed for PRRSV antibody and PRRSV RNA at 6 laboratories. Among the 100 samples from pens containing ?1 positive pig (?4% prevalence) and tested at the 6 laboratories, the mean positivity was 62% for PRRSV RNA and 61% for PRRSV antibody. These results support the use of pen-based oral fluid sampling for PRRSV surveillance in commercial pig populations. © 2013 The Author(s).
  • Author:
    Alonso C; Davies PR; Polson DD; Dee SA; Lazarus WF
    Title:
    Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds
    Source:
    Prev Vet Med Article in press (2013)
    Abstract:
    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7 km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Author:
    Gorden P J; van der List M; Lehman F D; Lantz R K; Constable P D
    Title:
    Elimination kinetics of cephapirin sodium in milk after an 8-day extended therapy program of daily intramammary infusion in healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows
    Source:
    J Dairy Sci Article in Press (2013)
    Abstract:
    The objective of this study was to determine the elimination kinetics of extended therapy with intramammary (IMM) cephapirin in lactating dairy cattle. Eight healthy Holstein-Friesian cows were administered cephapirin (200 mg) into all 4 mammary glands every 24 h after milking. Cows were milked 3 times per day and concentrations of cephapirin and desacetyl cephapirin were determined in bucket milk using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Milk concentration-time data after the last of the 8 IMM infusions were fitted using compartment and noncompartmental models. The maximum cephapirin concentration was 128 ± 57 ?g/mL (mean ± SD), the elimination rate constant from the central compartment was 0.278 ± 0.046 (h-1), clearance was 0.053 ± 0.023 L/h, the half time for elimination was 2.55 ± 0.40 h, and the mean residence time was 2.65 ± 0.79 h. The cephapirin concentration was below the approved tolerance in all cows by 96 h after the last infusion, which is the labeled withholding time for the preparation used. Extended therapy for 8 d provided milk cephapirin concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for common gram-positive mastitis pathogens (0.1 to 1.0 ?g/mL) for the duration of therapy and for an additional 16 to 32 h after the end of treatment. Our findings suggest that this IMM cephapirin sodium formulation, which is labeled for 2 doses 12 h apart, could be administered at a 24-h interval for up to 8 d in cows milked 3 times per day, with no significant effect on residue levels by 96 h after the last treatment. Longer withdrawal times would be prudent for cows with low milk production. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.
  • Author:
    Summerfield N J; Boswood A; O'Grady M R; Gordon S G; Dukes-Mc-Ewan J; Oyama M A; Smith S; Patteson M; French A T; Culshaw G J; Braz-Ruivo L; Estrada A; O'Sullivan M L; Loureiro J; Willis R; Watson P
    Title:
    Efficacy of pimobendan in the prevention of congestive heart failure or sudden death in Doberman Pinschers with preclinical dilated cardiomyopathy (The PROTECT Study) [Wirksamkeit von Pimobendan bei der Prävention von kongestiver Herzinsuffizienz oder plötzlichem Herztod bei Dobermann Pinschern mit präklinischer dilatativer Kardiomyopathie (Die PROTECT-Studie)]
    Source:
    Kleintierpraxis 58 (4), 169-186 (2013)
    Abstract:
    The benefit of pimobendan in delaying the progression of preclinical dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Dobermans is not reported. The hypothesis is that chronic oral administration of pimobendan to Dobermans with preclinical DCM will delay the onset of CHF or sudden death and improve survival. Seventy-six client-owned Dobermans recruited at 10 centers in the UK and North America. The trial was a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group multicenter study. Dogs were allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive pimobendan (Vetmedin * capsules) or visually identical placebo. The composite primary endpoint was prospectively defined as either onset of CHF or sudden death. Time to death from all causes was a secondary endpoint. The proportion of dogs reaching the primary endpoint was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.1). The median time to the primary endpoint (onset of CHF or sudden death) was significantly longer in the pimobendan (718 days, IQR 441-1152 days) versus the placebo group (441 days, IQR 151-641 days) (log-rank P = 0.0088). The median survival time was significantly longer in the pimobendan (623 days, IQR 491-1531 days) versus the placebo group (466 days, IQR 236-710 days) (log-rank P = 0.034). The administration of pimobendan to Dobermans with preclinical DCM prolongs the time to the onset of clinical signs and extends survival. Treatment of dogs in the preclinical phase of this common cardiovascular disorder with pimobendan can lead to improved outcome.
  • Author:
    White B J; Anderson D E; DuCharme A; Miesner M; Larson R L; Amrine D
    Title:
    Multimodal assessment of biometric changes in injection sites and physiology and behavior in beef calves receiving two different clostridial immunizations compared to negative controls
    Source:
    Int J appl res vet med 11 (1), 46-55 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Clostridial immunizations are commonly administered to cattle, and understanding the physiologic and behavioral effects of vaccination may influence preventative health program design. A randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial was conducted using multimodal assessment of injection sites, physiologic, and behavioral changes in calves receiving one of two clostridial vaccinations and negative controls. Calf response after injection was monitored daily utilizing physiologic parameters (rectal temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, and body weight), measurements of injection site reaction (lesion surface area, depth, and volume), skin surface temperature (thermography), and avoidance response to pressure at injection site (algometer). Calf behavior was remotely monitored using pedometers, accelerometers, and a remote triangulation system. Calves vaccinated with the clostridial products had larger injection site lesions and greater injection site surface temperature ratios compared to saline controls. The pressure required to stimulate a reaction differed among treatments and this effect was modified by treatment group with control calves requiring more pressure to stimulate avoidance response early in the trial. The percent of time calves spent standing was greater in one of the vaccine groups relative to controls as measured by the accelerometers. The location monitoring system revealed differences among treatment groups relative to time spent at the hay and grain feeding areas. This research illustrates that clostridial vaccination induced multiple changes in injection site, physiological, and behavioral variables as compared to negative controls. The biometric profile generated by the combination of multimodal assessment tools employed in this project demonstrates the advantages of objective assessment to describe effects of vaccine administration.
  • Author:
    Catchpole B; Adams J P; Holder A L; Short A D; Ollier W E R; Kennedy L J
    Title:
    Genetics of canine diabetes mellitus: Are the diabetes susceptibility genes identified in humans involved in breed susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs?
    Source:
    Vet J Lond 195 (2), 139-147 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in companion animals, characterised by hyperglycaemia, glycosuria and weight loss, resulting from an absolute or relative deficiency in the pancreatic hormone insulin. There are breed differences in susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs, with the Samoyed breed being overrepresented, while Boxers are relatively absent in the UK population of diabetic dogs, suggesting that genetic factors play an important role in determining susceptibility to the disease. A number of genes, linked with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in humans, are associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus in dogs, some of which appear to be relatively breed-specific. Diabetes mellitus in dogs has been associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (dog leucocyte antigen; DLA), with similar haplotypes and genotypes being identified in the most susceptible breeds. A region containing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and several polymorphisms have been identified in the canine insulin gene, with some alleles associated with susceptibility or resistance to diabetes mellitus in a breed-specific manner. Polymorphisms in the canine CTLA4 promoter and in other immune response genes are associated with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in a number of pedigree breeds. Genome wide association studies are currently underway that should shed further light on the genetic factors responsible for the breed profile seen in the diabetic dog population. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Author:
    Catchpole B; Adams JP; Holder AL; Short AD; Ollier WER; Kennedy LJ
    Title:
    Genetics of canine diabetes melitus: Are the diabetes susceptibility genes identified in humans involved in breed susceptibility to diabetes melitus in dogs?
    Source:
    Vet J (Lond) 195 (2), 139-147 (2013)
    Abstract:
    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in companion animals, characterised by hyperglycaemia, glycosuria and weight loss, resulting from an absolute or relative deficiency in the pancreatic hormone insulin. There are breed differences in susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs, with the Samoyed breed being overrepresented, while Boxers are relatively absent in the UK population of diabetic dogs, suggesting that genetic factors play an important role in determining susceptibility to the disease. A number of genes, linked with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in humans, are associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus in dogs, some of which appear to be relatively breed-specific. Diabetes mellitus in dogs has been associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (dog leucocyte antigen; DLA), with similar haplotypes and genotypes being identified in the most susceptible breeds. A region containing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and several polymorphisms have been identified in the canine insulin gene, with some alleles associated with susceptibility or resistance to diabetes mellitus in a breed-specific manner. Polymorphisms in the canine CTLA4 promoter and in other immune response genes are associated with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in a number of pedigree breeds. Genome wide association studies are currently underway that should shed further light on the genetic factors responsible for the breed profile seen in the diabetic dog population.
  • Author:
    Goutalier J; Combeau S; Quillon JP; Goby L
    Title:
    Distribution of cefalexin and kanamycin in the mammary tissue following intramammary administration in lactating cow.
    Source:
    J Vet Pharmacol Ther 36 (1), 95-98 (2013)